PSY 3103 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Cognitive Map, Behaviorism

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There are five schools of behaviorism
1. Methodological behaviorism
Watson’s version of behaviorism.
All references to subjective/internal events should be stricken from
the scientific analysis. He felt we should only study those behaviors that can
be directly observed. Ex, I see a dog and run away – no focus on why, ex fears.
S-R theory (stimulus-response theory)
Environmental events > observable behavior
Disregard internal events (conscious thoughts/feelings, unconscious
drives/motives)
“Give me a dozen healthy infants, well- formed, and my own specified world
to bring them up in and ill guarantee to take any one at random and train him
to become any type of specialist I might select doctors, lawyer, artist,
beggar, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations,
and race of his ancestors” (p.104)
This was his claim against eugenics and the claim during Nazism that
people’s abilities will be inherited. He suggested genetics are not as
important as people think they are. It is about ones environment.
Suggested we enter the world with basic reflexes and emotions (love, fear,
anger) and the environment determines the rest. Given the right
environment, a beggar can become a beggar, and vice versa.
2. Neobehaviorism
Hull
Said Watson’s prediction of events is not sound. If you look at physics
and science, even physics makes assumptions of unobservable events, ex,
gravity. Hull felt we should make assumptions about unobservable events,
but we needed to operationalize them in a specific away. Internal events
mediate between the environment and the behavior.
He proposed intervening variables. He felt they would be helpful o
define/operationalize physiological processes. Ex, hunger-drive, fatigue, etc
Environmental events > internal events (internal physiology processes, ex
hunger and fatigue) > observable behavior
If I’m hungry I will be more likely to eat food. Mediating event ex: number of
hours since you last ate
This is also a S-R theory. There is a mediating event that comes between the
stimulus and the response
3. Cognitive Behaviorism
Tolman
Molar approach
Thought we need to look at S-R at a broader level. Sees behavior as a more
goal-oriented result. Ex, getting the food/rat maze. The whole is greater than
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