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Lecture 4

PSY 3105 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Erik Erikson, Imaginary Audience, Reinforcement

Course Code
PSY 3105
Jocelyn Wentland

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PSY3105: Lecture 5 & 6
Lecture 6: The Self
oPhysical appearance and social acceptance #1 predictors of self-esteem.
Clarifying the Difference
oSelf esteem
Global measures of worth
o Self-concept
More specific
Self Esteem: Defining Aspect
oBaseline Self Esteem
The way you feel on a daily basis
o Barometric Self Esteem
Self Esteem at different points of a day, which we don’t measure
on a global measure of self esteem.
More accurate because more time points.
Development and Self Esteem
oDecline  9-12/13
oA cause is the imaginary audience: think that everyone is noticing you
even though this is not the case
Influences on Self Esteem
Through positive and negative reinforcement
Childhood & Adolescence
oChildhood  trait centred
oAdolescence  more exploration (abstract and more about personality)
Abstract Concepts
oActual Self (who I am)
oPossible Self (abstract thinking  adolescence)
oDepression Rates go up in adolescence, which is not noticed in pre-
Drop in self esteem
Self Reflection in Adolescence
More Complex
oCan think about multiple perspectives
oMore abstract thinking
oContradictions in who they are who they are not
oWho am I today, Who could I be
Beeper Studies
oSend a mass text to adolescence signed up to this study
oAsk to rate self esteem
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PSY3105: Lecture 5 & 6
Decline in Average Emotional State
oThings stabilize around gr 12
oAdolescents are moodier
Adolescent Self Image Eight Domains
o#1 Physical Appearance
o#2 Social Acceptance/Peer Acceptance
Identity: Erik Erikson Theory (IMPORTANT)
oIdentity vs. Identity Confusion
oPeople went through different crisis
Healthy plan
Similar to secure attachment
Identity Crisis in Adolescence
oLove, Work, Value and Beliefs influenced by family
oIdentity Achievement: expected from you in school
Identity Exploration
oPsychosocial Moratorium
oIdentification: where you are and where do you want to go?
Identity Status Model
oMoratorium: Thinking of some things but not 100% sure
oForeclosure: Not a lot of exploration because they knew  Don’t need to
oAchievement: You made a choice after exploring all possible options.
oGraph: Huge Age Difference among stages
D  Diffusion
F  Foreclosure
M  Moratorium
Culture and Identity: Issues
oHuge Bias in Literature because most research comes from white western
view who have an interest in self which is very individualistic and cannot
be applied to everyone.
oMoratorium: is more western
Lecture 5: Gender
oWhat does being a woman mean to you?
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