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Lecture 2

PSY 3122 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Yousee, Psychoanalysis, Fetishism


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 3122
Professor
Lisa Henry
Lecture
2

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Lecture 2: cross cultural perspectives
A sociological perspective
For exam: what are sexual norms in those pre-history societies (that we'll be
looking at, three of them... )
People often apply an ethnocentric "you" for other cultures, and sexuality
Our way is the only way
Our way is the best way; value judgment about one's culture being
best, other need to match up to that point of reference
2 forms of polygamy
"poly"=many
Gyny/andry (many women, or many men)
Polygyny fairly common; one wife many husbands less
common and often involves marrying brothers
Marriage in many places are for socioeconomic reasons
853 cultures are monogamous, so polygamy unusual
Eg tanzania and polygamy
Cross-cultural to get better understanding of diversity of sexual
norms, and the universality (how they are the same)
Ethnocentric:
Ethnocentrism
Diversity and universalism of sexual norms
Provides insight into...
Way to classify cultures
Continuum so can get semi in middle
These cultures understand human sexuality as very
natural part of human development; see as normal,
natural and part of development
No culture offers a 100% complete freedom of
expression; always some kind of rule! Might be less,
or more slack. But there is no free for all. Always
some kind of shaping and limitation to sexual
expression
Permissive: characterized by positive and tolerant attitudes
towards the freedom of sexual expression.
in general, the societies are ignorant of the role, or
some aspects of sexuality in development
Eg may not know link between menstruation adn
conception; may give menstruation a whole different
meaning if don't know how to make a baby
Or see these aspects as being negative, not good.
Some negative p.o.v
Restrictive societies: will seek to control and restrain sexual
expression very rigidly
Semi: certain tolerance of expression, but a few more rules
and regulation compared to permissive. Line is fairly clear,
Permissive -> restrictive continuum
Illustrates the importance of learning in shaping human sexual
behaviour (as opposed to biol. Determinism)
Why study?
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Canada: semi-restrictive, maybe a hair permissive
and regulation compared to permissive. Line is fairly clear,
people know when they've crossed the line
Does society harbor a lot of anxiety? Fears, taboos (eg we
don't talk about those things here), banning...
Low anxiety -> high anxiety continuum
The learning!
Bodies are the same across cultures... So what makes up the huge
differences? Sociocultural influences
Demonstrates how "sexual normalcy" is a relative concept
Good? Bad? Mean you're an adult now?
Meaning is assigned through language, socialization
Demonstrates how cultral attitudes, customs and beliefs about sex
and sexuality assigning MEANING to the indiv's sexual behaviour
Eg aidsepidemic
Important to understand context, norms creating that context,
to understand the problem
Eg risk factors in N.A (many partners is in list), in africa (being a
female, married to 1 man is a risk factor)... Power btwn men and
women, education... Even condoms are considered a western
things at times... Notion of sex with a young girl will cure... WHO
has had to tell everyone to have sex or marrying girls under
9...whole different context. Can;t apply colutions that work in1
soceity in another w/o understanding it.
Three Cultures
Is essential to analyzing sexually related problems in the world and is
key to finding solutions
Info taken from the 1960's! Snapshot of what was going on there
at that time. Neglects many influences over time.
Studied by: Marshall (note, don't freak out over these names and
years)
From early age, boys and girls encouraged to engage in sex-
play and masturbation
Sex regular subject of conversation
Around 12/13/14, puberty time, boys and girls instructed,
usually by an adult, in sexual techniques (taught techs)
Highly sought after, allowed entry into the "pleasure
period"
The Expert inserted har dpiece of shell under foreskin
to protect glans, made incision all the way up the top
of the shaft to where the penis met the body.
End result, scar and a kind of flapped open foreskin.
Not removed, but flaps open revealing tip of penis
and creating a scar up to the pubic area.
Get to run into ocean after it is done, then Fill up with
Superincision
Males underwent a form of genital modification
The Mangaians (note, info inspired by pages 10 and 11)
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herbs, plants, etc. banaged and are put into seclusion
No contact with girls, and instructed in sexual
techniques from the expert. Special diet too.
Taught to hold off organasm so female would orgasm
2 to 3 times first. Taught caressing, oral stimulation,
breast and genital stimulation.
First sexual experience after seclusion is with an
experienced woman. Intercourse movements will rip
off scab, after which he can find partners of own age
How to make pelvic and vulvar movements to experience
pleasure and organsm
Most erotic part of a woman, to mangaians, is the mons
venus (pubic area)
After learning techniques, in pleasure period and find
partners of their age.
Girls around same age instructed by adult female. Not mother.
Sex like a game, no emotional attachment; encouraged to have
many different partners, everyone found a partner
Up until 30, men have 2-3 orgasms a day (holding back to
females have 2-3 for every one)
From 4-8 and older: 2/3 times per week with 1 orgasm each
Tatoo of genitals sign of pride of many partners
At 20 years old, allowed to marry, usually for love
Believed babies form sex with same person a lot
Encouraged multiple partners
Arrival of baby positive impact of their sex life
Half of couples married when girl pregnant or after giving
birth (13% born "illegitimate"- N.A term)
No stigma to unwed mothers
Decision made with dad about who she would marry to
help raised child, man happy to raise as own, no issues
Unaware of link btwn menstruation and pregnancies!
Emphasis placed on lengthy and enjoyable sexual experiences,
and the movement in and out of intercourse
Looked down on virginity, because they don't know how to
provide sexual pleasure
Believed abstinence caused physical harm
1% virgins at marriage; only chief's daughters
5% divorce rate!!!
No homosexuality?
PERMISSIVE
LITTLE ANXIETY
Off coast of Ireland
Messenger and wife, 1950's and 60's
Pop'n 350
Roman catholic
Sex shrouded with feelings of guilt and sinfulness
Talk so taboo, even saying "she's pregnant" is taboo
No formal education of sexuality or sex ed.
Boys generally more informed than girls, but knowledge from older
The islanders of Inis Beag
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