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Lecture 9

PSY 3301 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Olfactory Mucosa, Olfactory Bulb, Olfactory Epithelium


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 3301
Professor
Andra Smith
Lecture
9

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Behaviour, Motivation, Emotion and the Brain
Identifying the Causes of Behaviours
Emotion
-Cognitive interpretation of subjective feelings
Motivation
-Behaviours that seems purposeful and goal directed
Neuroanatomy of Emotion and Motivation
-Hypothalamus
-Limbic System
-Frontal Lobes
Theories of Behaviour
Hebb and Heron
-People are motivated to interact with their environments to maintain at least a minimum level of
brain stimulation
Example: sensory deprivation study = no one could handle it (max 6 hours)
-Needed to have sensory stimulation to function = allows for behavior to go on
Drive theorists
-Drives play a role in behavior by motivating an organism to engage in a particular behaviour
-We have stored up energy for di-erent drives but once energy is gone there is no drive
Example: after drinking a L of water there is no more drive to drink more = Flush Model
-Brain is storing energy for behavior = state of arousal motivates us to particular behavior
B.F. Skinner
-Reinforcers dictate behaviour (not free will)
Example: rat pressing for cocaine
-BUT – drives, reinforcers, stimulation and motivation do not explain all behaviour
-Neural activity gives rise to behaviour and this activity is in2uenced by evolution and the
environment
Evolutionary Theory
Innate releasing mechanisms (IRMs)
-We are born with IRMs that activate behaviour in response to templates within us
Example: kitten killing a bird having never seen it done before
-Internal programs trigger behaviours through these IRMs = important for survival
-Although IRMs are prewired into the brain, they can be modi4ed with experience
Olfaction
Receptors for Smell
-Olfactory epithelium
lies on the naval cavity and contains receptor cells and support cells
-
Receptor cells send cilia into the
olfactory mucosa
-Airborne chemicals dissolve in the olfactory mucosa and interact with the cilia
-Transduce to change the membrane potential in glomeruli to generate action potential
Activation of metabotropic receptors leads to the opening of sodium channels and
subsequent change in membrane potential
-Goes on to stimulate the mitral cells and continues to areas of the brain
Olfaction
Olfactory Pathways (Primary)
-Olfactory cells project to the olfactory bulb, ending in tufts of dendrites called glomeruli
-In the olfactory bulbs, synapses are formed with mitral cells, which then project to several areas
of the forebrain
Pyriform cortex, entorhinal cortex, amygdala, hypothalamus, thalamus, and the orbitofrontal
cortex
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