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Lecture 3

PSY 3301 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Amacrine Cell, Brodmann Area, Visual Cortex


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 3301
Professor
Andra Smith
Lecture
3

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Damage to the Visual System
Light information travels….
1. Pupil – lens and cornea bend light to allow us to focus
2. Retinal photoreceptors = rods and cones
3. Retinal neurons = horizontal cells – bipolar cells – amacrine cells – ganglion
cells (M and P cells)
4. Optic chiasm – geniculostriate (M and P cells) or tectopulvinar (M cells)
pathway – movement and unconscious
1) Geniculostriate Pathway
Retina Lateral Geniculate Nucleus of Thalamus Primary Visual Cortex = Striate
Cortex Extrastriate Cortex = Association Cortices
2) Tectopulvinar Pathway
Retina Superior Colliculus of Midbrain Pulvinar Nucleus of Thalamus (Striate
Cortex Extrastriate (pVC anterior) Cortex) Association Cortices
Primary Visual Cortex
V1, Striate Cortex, Brodmann area 17 = First time shape or form appears
Arrives from the information provided from the ganglion cells’ receptive
3elds.
Receptive 3eld = region of the visual world that stimulates a receptor cell or
neuron.
Feature detectors or orientation columns in V1 are excited only by speci3cally
oriented bars of light – ocular dominance columns – information is separated
from retina to PVC
Hubel and Weisel = Nobel Price in 1981 for simple and complex cortical
neurons.
Cortical Pathways
1) ‘Where or How’ – dorsal stream – parietal pathway – damage can lead to
visual ataxia
2) ‘What’ – ventral stream – temporal pathway – damage can lead to visual
agnosia a) face, b) object c) words
-Object recognition = depends on where damage happens
Illusions
Illusion is not simply an error of perception, but an exaggeration of a normal
perceptual process.
Deceptions of the senses are the truths of perception – Johannes Purkinje
Papilledema: Swollen optic nerve due to increased intracranial pressure
- Symptom of something else (MS, disorder or head trauma)
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