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Memory & Emotion - Lecture Notes

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Kenneth Campbell

Memory Stages of Information Processing & Memory Encoding (acquisition) Storage (retention) Retrieval Encoding - Automatic processing most common (automatically, no effort) o Information about location, time, frequency... - Others are Effortful processing (needs attention, is controlled) o Rehearsal requires effort (to maintain information and pass onto long-term) Depths/Levels of Encoding: - Visual image: i.e. is the word in capital letters? - Acoustic sound: does the word rhyme with “free”? - Semantic meaning: Is the word an animal? o Words that are processed semantically are better remembered Aiding Encoding/Memory - Visual encoding/image: words are easily imagined are better remembered than more abstract words (liberty, hope) - Mnemonic devices: a means to remember long lists and passages. I.e. make up a story for list o Chunking: we are able to store +/- 7 items in short-term memory, imporved through chunking (i.e. acronyms) Types of Memory Sensory Short-term (Working) Long-term (Permanent) Stimulus are automatically extracted Depends on rehearsal (effort) to Essentially limitless and encoded maintain memory Transferred from short-term memory Stored in brief-lasting sensory Active attention, no distractions Role of hippocampus memory Limited content (7 items) Must be transferred back to working Iconic(visual – pictures last tenths of Increased through mnemonics (i.e. memory sec) & Ethoic (auditory – 3/4 sec) chunking) Limited contents The Nature of Memory Stored Long term potentiation: the prolonged potential of neuronal firing. Once repeatedly used (circuit), the sending neuron easily releases neurotransmitters and post synaptic neuron may increase the number of receptor sites (or structure may change) Consolidation: transfer from short-term to long-term memory. Takes time, involves rehearsal, requires consciousness. If individual loses memory = no recollection of the memory when conscious. Explicit memory Implicit memory Priming Amnesia Memory for facts, Memories that exists but I.e. word “cat” Loss of memory, often experiences that one can cannot be consciously automatically primes the explicit memory. I.e. can do consciously recall (i.e recalled (i.e. motor skills) retrieval of the word “dog” complex task but won’t personal history) remember when learnt it. Improving Retrieval - Recall: ability to retrieve information from me
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