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PSY1101 (853)

Motivation - Notes

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University of Ottawa
Kenneth Campbell

Motivation Basic Motives: - Why do we act the way we do? - Basic (biological) motives are shared by humans and other animals. o Life and species survival (hunger, thirst, sex?, aggression?) Drive reduction theory - Basic “psychological “needs” o Internal physiological need creates an aroused state that drives the organism to reduce the need o Homeostasis: maintenance of internal balance o Hypothalamus involved in most of the brain’s “set points” (if not all) Incentives - External events/stimuli that pull us an appropriate direction o Objects/direction of motivation o Primary reinforcers (ex sight/smell of food motivates us) o Secondary reinforcers Social Biology - Human behaviour inherited = instincts o Should be common to all members of species - Instincts vary widely across humans, thus term is dropped in psychology - Social biology & ethology: theory maintains that much of behaviour is due to evolutionary principles; much of our behaviours evolved from other animals, motives/actions can be explained by evolutionary principles (even if we are not conscious of it) Value of Actions - Pleasure as a basic psychological motivator o Stimuli that enhances our biological well-being o Pain is associated with threats to survival - Mesolimbic dopamine system o Many different simulit will activate this system o Common to all pleasure (food, drink, sex) o Drugs also activate this system - May create a desire to repeat the event that caused the activation of the center(s) Homeostasis - Internal balance, hypothalamus involved in most of the brain’s “set points” Sexual Motivation - P. Kleinplatz (Human Sexual Behaviour) o Surveys of sexual behaviour in humans o Difficult to interpret o Samples are rarely representative of the overall population = difficult to generalize Cause of sexual activity -
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