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PSY1101 Chapter 1

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Najwa Haddad

PSY1101 Section I Chapter 1 Thinking critically with psychological science Introduction Definition Psychology is a science We study cognitive processes emotional motivational and behavioral processes It is the scientific study of how we think feel and behave Scope Therapy is a small fraction of psychology every aspect of life involves psychology For example Microsoft hires psychologists to design their websites because they understand human perception I The Need for Psychological Science B Why A1 Limits of Intuition We cannot rely on intuition though it is important ex Just before an attack people can sometimes feel that something is off as intuition can be misleading ex For the longest time we thought the sun revolved around the earth A2 Limits of Common Sense Common sense is only common sense after the fact only learned through experience is the result of knowledge cannot be used to solve new problemshindsight bias the I knew it all along phenomenon we have this tendency to once we know all the facts and the conclusion to feel as if we could have done something or foreseen something ex 911 3000 people were killed the first plane hits and people thought it was an accident people told to go back to their offices no evacuation we now see that evacuations should have happened but did not know enough to see that back then A3 Overconfidence about our Knowledge We have the tendency to overestimate how accurate our knowledge is The experts do too Lord Kelvin mathematicianphysicist said that flying machines were impossible Tetlock studies experts opinions turns out they are accurate less than 40 of the time when it comes to predictions Overconfidence on the average person we are 10 more confident than accurate A4 Illusory Correlation Definition we have the tendency to see relationships between 2 or more variables when there is none ex The full moon and abnormal behavior no actual relationship but large belief A5 Perceiving Order in Random EventsWe dont like uncertainty so we look for patterns and explanations ex In the lotto 71229324246 is more likely to be bought than 123456 but the possibilities are the same for both C The Scientific Attitude You need curiosity passion openmindedness and skepticism in balance awareness of your biases in order to try and stop them from influencing you humility since you arent the only smart person there is the knowledge that science isnt about the prestige but about understanding and cautiousness is needed when presenting
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