Class Notes (809,569)
Canada (493,754)
Psychology (3,902)
PSY1101 (853)

PSY1101 Lecture Notes: Neuroscience - Brain

8 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Ottawa
Kenneth Campbell

Neuroscience – Brain The Brain and Nervous System  Read in Myers Orientation  Medial-Lateral  Ventral-Dorsal (belly-back)  Anterior-Posterior aspects of brain (front-back)  Superior-inferior aspects of brain (upper-lower) Slices  Coronal (vertical across side)-Sagittal (vertical from top)-Horizontal (across side) Imaging Techniques Anatomical techniques  Slicing the human brain  Viewing macrostructures w the human eye or microstructures w a microscope  Appropriate for cadavers (bodies of those executed back then) MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)  Advantage: Provides high resolution images of the brain  Problems: o Very expensive o Static. Provides an image of the structures but does not indicate the function of the structure o Resolution is limited (cannot see single cells) o But... now we can see microstructures (only for research purposes) Functional Techniques (Observing the active brain)  What areas of the brains are responsible for diff animal and human functions?  In the clinical setting: Observe functions lost bc of brain injury (trauma, stroke, tumours, etc.) Most of these studies were done during the War (lots of patients)  Problem: human brain injuries are often widespread and not highly specific  In the experimental setting: Lesion a specific part of animal brains to determine its function  Stimulate a specific area of the brain to observe the function it controls  Problems: in many cases, it is difficult to know just what an animal is experiencing  Higher mental states may well differ across species. How applicable are these studies to humans? How can we know what the animals are feeling (emotions)? Can animals have speech? TMS (Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation) PET (Positron Emission Tomography) Active region of your brain requires a great deal of energy (from glucose  from circulating blood)  Advantage: Provides an image of the function of various structures of the brain. Indicates which areas are active (and require glucose) for a task to be completed.  Disadvantage o Invasive – Requires deoxyglucose to be injected into the blood (radioactive agent) o Very slow – Blood circulates slowly. The brain makes rapid decisions. The PET provides an image of all the brain areas that were active w/in the last 1-2 min o Expensive 1 Functional MRI (fMRI)  Uses MRI scan  Indicates which areas are active (and require oxygen) for a task to be completed  High resolution image of brain structures (unlike PET)  Motor/Visual Processing  Disadvantages o Slow – Can be as fast as 200-500ms to obtain image, but the brain makes decisions much more rapidly than this ( in blood flow is slow) o Expensive Imaging Techniques EEG/Evoked Potentials  Electrodes attached to the scalp  Provides an indication of the electrical activity of the brain  Evoked Potentials o When a stimulus is presented, measures changes in electrical activity  Disadvantages o Poor spatial resolution o Electrical activity from the scalp provides a poor indication of the actual underlying structures of the brain The Nervous System  Peripheral NS  Central NS o Spinal cord o Brain  (The importance isn’t on the # of neurons you have , but the CONNECTIONS bw them) The Peripheral Nervous System  Neurons will REGROW in PNS but not in CNS  Sensory receptors o In the body and also, specialized receptors in the head (eg. Ear)  Sensory “nerves” o Afferent input from the sensory receptors to the CNS o In the body (soma) o In the head (specialized “senses”)  Motor nerves o Efferent output from the CNS to the muscles; motor action  Muscles o In the body and head (movement of head face eyes ears tongue/lips) o Heart, lungs, stomach, gut o Not part of the NS but is controlled by it 2 The Spinal Cord  If severed, will not re-grow  need protection: surround it by bones & spongy layer  Grey matter – complex Interneuronal communication o Ganglion – swelling w/ grey matter in it (can regenerate)  White matter – long axons surrounded by myelin sheath Ganglia  Man does not need a brain to mate in nature  Insects do not have CNS but they have ganglion Monosynaptic Reflex  Single synapse  Done automatically w/o a need for any complex conscious action  THEN experience pain (after action) Evolution of the Brain  Phylogenetic development (dev. of brain in species)  Olfactory system is very important to our survival  We never throw away old developments (rule in nature)  Expansion of forebrain 3 Divisions of the Brain  Hindbrain o Medulla; pons Stem of the brain  Midbrain  Forebrain o Diencephalon; cerebrum The Brainstem  Medulla, pons (bridge over brainstem), midbrain  Specialized senses of the head (eg. ears)  Head “muscles” – eye/ear movement, facial muscles, tongue, lips, etc.  Life “support” systems – T , heart, respiration  Sleep-wake cycle  Reticular activating system o Bundle of neurons right in the middle of brainstem (medulla to thalamus) o Stimulate one cell  stimulate them all  Motor cranial nerves The Cerebellum  Complex motor programs that we are not aware of  Has no consciousness (can demonstrate that we have motor program but don’t know how exactly we do it) The Diencephalon  Thalamus  Hypothalamus The Thalamus  Receives input from all sensory sys (except olfaction)  Massive grey area (tiny unmyelineated neurons, Interneuronal comm)  Has specific sensory “nuclei” (diff regions for each info process; auditory/olfactory/etc)  Also, many “association” areas  Thus, acts as a type of receptionisht/filter for the neocortex  In middle of brain  Visual pathway: optic nerve  subdivision of thalamus  visual cortex The Hypothalamus  At base of brain (rich supply of blood) Inferior to thalamus  Provides basic life support system  Inferior is the pituitary gland (“master gland”) o  Monitors blood: levels of nutrients,2H O,2O , T , hormones  Autonomic nervous sys (beyond control of cortex, ≠ think) o Basic “
More Less

Related notes for PSY1101

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.