1. Classical Conditioning
a. Conditioning: learning to form associations
b. Ex. Red light = stop, green = go
B. Pavlov’s Experiment
- Dogs drooling when hearing the bell
- Unconditioned response/ stimulus: naturally, automatically
- Conditioned response/ stimulus: an originally unrelated stimulus that
after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a
- The initial stage when one links a neutral stimulus and an
unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering
the conditioned response.
- Higher order conditioning(weaker): hearing a tone signaling food and
produces salivation, a light that becomes associated with the tone will
begin to trigger salivation
c. Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery
- CS occurs repeatedly without the US
- Extinction: the diminishing of a conditioned response, occurs when a
US doesn’t follow a CS.
- Spontaneous recover: the reappearance of a weakened CR after a
pause, suggested that extinction was suppressing the CR rather than
- The tendency to respond a stimuli similar to CS
e. Discrimination - The learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and
other irrelevant stimuli
C. Extending Pavlov’s Understanding
a. Cognitive Processes
- Animal can learn the predictability of an event.
- The more predictable the association, the stronger the conditioned
b. Biological Predispositions (constraints)
- Pavlov and Watson believed the basic law of learning were essentially
similar in all animals.
- An animal’s capacity for conditioning is constrained by its biology.
Each species’ predispositions prepare it to learn the associations that
enhance its survival.
c. Pavlov’s Legacy
- First to scientifically study learning
- Took complicated psychological process and studied it objectively
2. Operant Conditioning:
A. Skinners Experiments
a. Introductions: organisms associate their actions with consequences.
Actions followed by reinforcement increase and vice versa (Law of effect).
b. Unlike classical, which is automatic and reflexive, OC is voluntary, which
is initiated by the organism
c. Skinner box (operant chamber): used for his study, a box where they
learn to press a key or bar to release a reward of food or water.
B. Principles of reinforcement
a. Positive reinforcement: increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli
b. Negative reinforcement: increasing behaviors by removing negative
stimuli c. Primary reinforcer: naturally satisfying, don’t need to learn.