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PSY1101 ch.2: The Biology of the Mind

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Najwa Haddad

PSY 1101H thLecture 2September 15 2011 nd Lecture 3September 22 2011thLecture 2September 15 2011CH 2 The Biology of MindThe Nervous System I II III IV VI FunctionStructure of the Nervous System NS nervous systemCNS central nervous system PNS peripheral nervous systembrainspinal cord all nerves in bodyCommunication network y Receives info from the senses y NS will organizeintegrate this info in a meaningful manor y Use this info along with existing info to send out messages to musclesglandsy Produces behaviour and controls movement NS creates conscious experience We study the NS in psychology because everything psychological is physiological A B C D II NeuronsA Basic functionsstructure of neuronsNeurons are a basic unit of communication in the nervous system There are 3 types correspond to 3 functions of the NS 1 Sensory neurons Receive info from sensory organs and send info to central NS via nerves 2 Interneurons Only found in the central NS Communicate with other neurons Organizeintegrate info 3 Motor Neurons Carry messages from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands Carry messages via nerves Basic structure of neurons y Cell bodysorna manufacture everything the neuron needs to survivegrow y Dendrites o Thin tubelike structures with 2 functions sto 1 function ndo 2 function receive info fromy Axon o Function carries out electrical pulse y Axon branches y Terminal buttons or axon terminals y Some of the axons are covered by Myelin sheath a fattylike substance o Myelin sheath provides axon with insulation o Myelin sheath speeds up transmissiony Synapse o The place where neurons meet to communicate with each other y Synaptic cleft of synaptic gap o Tiny distance between the two neurons at the synapse y Presynaptic neuron o The neuron that is sending a message to another neuron y Postsynaptic neuron o The neuron that is receiving a message from another neuronB Communication B1 Communication Within a NeuronBrain80 water Intracellular fluid water inside the cell Extracellular fluid water outside the cell Water has dissolved chemicals including Nasodium ions Cl chloride ions K potassium ions A protein ions Na Cl Kfound in different concentrations insideoutside the cell Aonly found inside the cell Porous membrane is porous ions can go in and out Selectively permeable ions cant move freely the membrane determines what crosses and wheny Neurons at rest not firingInside Outside higher concentration Khigher concentration K more negativeions more positiveions negatively charged positively chargedy 70mV y Polarized y Even when neuron is at rest its still receiving messages from other neurons
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