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Chapter 11 - Motivation and Work

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University of Ottawa
Najwa Haddad

Chapter 11Motivation and Work I Motivational Concepts DefinitionMotivation is the why of behaviour why we do what we doDirects and energizes behaviourA Instincts and evolutionary psychologyInstincts motivate human behaviourAnd instinct is a genetically determined predisposition to behave in a specific way when a specific stimulus is present ex birds flying south for the winterEverything we do is based on instinct we jog because of instinct we type because of instinct the theory was overbloated and the arguments were circular so they theory fell out of favourThe theory that genes play a major role is still widely acceptedB Drives and IncentivesDrives theory o According to these theories we have basic biological needs that have to be met warmth water sleep sex o When these needs are not met a state of tension is going to occur which is aversive and uncomfortable so we are motivated to take action so that we can bring the tension down the longer the needs have gone without satisfaction the higher the tension to do something and the stronger the pushIncentives theory o Yes we have internal and biological needs but in the external environment there are rewards and incentives that yell out come to me come to me such as money beautiful cars and we are motivated to take action to get those rewards We come to class because we are motivated to get out degree which gives us incentive to have good attendanceC Optimal ArousalBoth humans and animals are motivated to maintain an optimal level of arousalIf arousal is too low we become bored restless and unpleasant we just want to get out of it we work hard to bring it up ex go bungee jumpingIf arousal is too high it is uncomfortable and unpleasant we just want to get out of it we work hard to bring it down ex we are nervous about a test we go and eat cake D Hierarchy of Motives MaslowAccording to Maslow he was a famous psychologists we both have physiological and psychological needs and both of these motivate us to take action to make sure these needs are satisfiedHowever some needs will take precedent over othersThere is a hierarchy of needs some needs need to be met before others can be satisfiedOrder Least important to most important 6 Selftranscendence needs the need to find meaning and purpose outside of the self the need to help other selfactualize 5 Selfactualization needs our need to live in line with our true self and out potential 4 Selfesteem needs 3 Love needs 2 Safety needs 1 Physiological needsII Hunger A The physiology of HungerEmpty stomach o No stomachBody chemistry and the brain o Glucose levels go down o Ghrelin the hunger hormone high levels of ghrelin means appetite is increased and one feels hungry once we eat levels of ghrelin go down o 2 hormones that reduce eating behaviours because they reduce sasiationPyy CCKo HypothalamusLateral hypothalamus is stimulated one will eat and eat and eatVentromedial hypothalamus is stimulated one will not eat at all
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