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PSY1101 (861)
Lecture

DEPTH PERCEPTION.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY1101
Professor
Rosalinde Klempan
Semester
Winter

Description
DEPTH PERCEPTION o OUR CAPACITY TO HAVE 3-D PERCEPTION WHICH ENABLES US TO JUDGE DISTANCE (RETINA ONLY RECEIVES TWO DIMENSIONS) GIBSON AND WALK (1960)  VISUAL CLIFF:  PLATFORM COVERED IN PLEXIGLASS AND CHECKERBOARD PATTERN UNDERNEATH 1/2 (AS IF FORMING A CLIFF)  EVIDENCE THAT EVEN 2 MONTH OLD INFANTS PERCEIVE THE DEPTH.  DEPTH PERCEPTION MAY BE INNATE  DEPTH CUES  BINOCULAR: REQUIRE BOTH EYES  MONOCULAR: USED BY EACH EYE SEPERATELY  TWO BINOCULAR CUES  RETINAL DISPARITY  CONVERGENCE  RETINAL DESPARITY  CUE TO THE RELATIVE DISTANCE OF DIFFERENT OBJECTS  BRAIN COMPARES SLIGHTLY DIFFERENT RETINAL IMAGES AND THE DIFFERENCE (DESPARITY) IS A CUE TO RELATIVE DISTANCE OF DIFFERENT OBJECTS (GREAT DISPARITY -CLOSER OBJECT)  BRAIN:  INTEGRATES TWO IMAGES INTO 3-D  CONTRUCTS PERCEPTIONS  CONVERGENCE  EYES TURN INWARD TO VIEW A CLOSE OBJECT  BRAIN RECEIVES INFO. ON ANGLE OF CONVERGENCE AND USES INFO TO DECIDE HOW CLOSE OBJECT IS.  MONOCULAR CUES  DEPEND ON THESE CUES WHEN OBJECTS ARE AT GREAT DISTANCE AND RETINAL DISPARITY IS SLIGHT (BEYOND 10 TO 12 FEET)  INTERPOSITION  THE OBJECT PARTLY BLOCKING VIEW OF ANOTHER IS PERCEIVED AS CLOSER  RELATIVE SIZE  IF OBJECTS ARE OF SIMILAR SIZE, THE ONE CASTING SMALLER RETINAL IMAGE IS PERCEIVED AS FARTHER AWAY  RELATIVE CLARITY  HAZY OBJECTS PERCEIVED AS FARTHER AWAY THAN CLEAR ONES (HAZIER LIGHT: MORE DISTANT)  TEXTURE GRADIENT:  GRADUAL CHANGE FROM A COURSE, DISTINCT TEXTURE TO A FINE, INDISTINCT TEXTURE: PERCEIVED AS INCREASING DISTANCE (FAR-AWAY OBJECTS: SMALLER AND MORE DENSELY PACKED)  RELATIVE HEIGHT  OBJECTS HIGHER IN OUR FIELD OF VISION PERCEIVED AS FARTHER AWAY  NOTE:  WHEN ABOVE THE HORIZON THEN REVERSAL OF RULE (OBJECTS CLOSER TO HORIZON SEEN AS FARTHER AWAY)  LINEAR PERSPECTIVE  PARALLEL LINES RECEDING INTO THE DISTANCE TEND TO CONVERGE TOWARDS A SINGLE POINT  SHADING/SHADOWS  GIVES INFO ABOUT: DISTANCE, DEPTH, LIGHT SOURCE  RELATIVE MOTION  IF WE ARE IN MOTION, NEARER OBJECTS WILL APPEAR TO MOVE FASTER IN OPPOSITE DIRECTION VS DISTANCE OBJECTS  DISTANCE CUE FROM DIFFERENCES IN SPEED AT WHICH OBJECTS MOVE  MOTION PERCEPTION  BRAIN USES CUES BASED ON CHANGING SIZE AND POSITION ON RETINAL IMAGE  SHRINKING OBJECTS ARE MOVING AWAY AND ENLARGING OBJECTS ARE APPROACHING  STROBOSCOPIC MOTION  WE INTERPRET A RAPID SERIES OF SLIGHTLY VARYING IMAGES AS MOVEMENT (EG. MOTION PICTURE  PHI PHENOMENON  A MOVEMENT ILLUSION  WHEN TWO LIGHTS BLINK ON AND OFF IN FAST SUCCESSION WE PERCEIVE ONE LIGHT MOVING  PERCEPTUAL INTERPRETATION SENSORY DEPRIVATION RESTORED VISION EXPERIMENTS ON EARLY SENSORY DEPRIVATION  INVESTIGATE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF LEARNING VS INNATE ABILITY TO PERCEPTION  ANIMALS RAISED WITH GOGGLES HAVE PERCEPTUAL LIMITATIONS  FORM PERCEPTION DEFICITS  FUNCTIONALLY BLIND TO SHAPE  INNATE:  COLOUR  BRIGHTNESS FIGURE-GROUND   NO DEFICITS  IF RESTRICTION IN ADULTHOOD  CRITICAL (SENSITIVE) PERIOD:  STAGE IN DEVELOPMENT WHERE ORGANISM IS OPTIMALLY READY TO ACQUIRE CERTAIN ABILITIES AND MAY BE DIFFICULT TO ACQUIRE AT OTHER TIMES  RESTRICTED VISUAL INPUT EXPERIMENTS  RAISE KITTENS IN DARKNESS  EXCEPT FOR 5HRS/DAY OF EITHER HORIZONTALLY OR VERTICALLY STRIPED ENVIRONMENT  LATER:  DIFFICULTY PERCEIVING BARS OF TYPE NOT EXPOSED TO AND SENSITIVITY NEVER NORMALIZES  RESPONSE OF FEAUTURE-DETECTING BRAIN CELLS DEPENDED ON EXPERIENCE  CONCLUSIONS: 1. NEURAL CONNECTIONS ARE FORMED BY EARLY EXPERIENCE 2. CRITICAL PERIODS EXIST (IN HUMANS MOST CRITICAL PERIOD: FIRST 2 YEARS ) 3. STIM
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