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Schools of Psychology.docx

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Kenneth Campbell

Psychology Lecture 1 9/11/2012 6:49:00 AM What is psychology? -The study of the “psyche”  Psyche = mind (soul) o Psyche was the daughter of a king and sister of 3 (greek mythology)  Psyche has a transformation from mortal to goddess -The science of behavior and mental processes  but in science we have to be able to: o define our variables o observe our variables o measure (quantify) our variables  Problems o What is behavior o Observe behavior o Measure behavior o What is the “mind” o What are “mental processes”? o Difficult to define o Mental processes cannot be observed o They can be inferred Is this an experiment in psychology? -In a true experiment we manipulate or change a “variable”. -In physics we, examine the physical universe Lexical Decisions -Mental process that searches a long term memory -Lexicon: long term memory What mental processes were involved? Major Divisions of Psychology -Experimental (oldest, mid – late 1800’s)  first experimental psychology lab – Wilhelm Wundt in Leipzig, Germany  “The exact description of consciousness [Bewuusstsein] is the sole aim of experimental psychology"  Structuralism: Edward Titchener in the U.S. o Attempted to discover the basic structures of the mind (analogous to the basic elements in chemistry). o He used a method called introspections. o The participant had to look inward (self-reflect) on the contents of their consciousness o This proved to be very unreliable and highly subjective.  Functionalism (pragmatism) o Developed by William James in the U.S. o What is the function of our thoughts and emotions o James did not carry out experimental research.  Rather he developed a number of theories about consciousness, attention, memory. He wrote the first textbook on Psychology o Again, the study of functions proved to be highly subjective -Clinical (newest, after WWII)  Counseling; psychotherapy.  Sigmund Freud is generally considered to be the founder of psychotherapy but Freud was not a psychologist  Major roots of clinical psychology and therapy are recent – perhaps in the late 1940s in the U.S.  First clinical Psychology Dept in Canada… U. Ottawa  Now the major field in psychology -Applied  Apply knowledge of basic, fundamental (experimental) psychology  Social, developmental, educational Schools of Psychology -Behavioural -Cognitive -Biological -Social -Psychoanalytical -Phenomenological Behavioural -Began in 1920s with J. Watson. Criticism by cognitive psychology and psychoanalysis  -The study of mental events in unscientific. This is because o Mental events are private (science is objective!) o They cannot easily be defined. o They cannot be observed. o They cannot be measured. -Psychology as an objective science -B.F. Skinner (1935-1990). The principles of “behaviourism”  Why do we cat the waywe do? (motivation)  All behavior is learned  All behavior can be explained by the consequences of of behavior!  We must learn to repeat behavior that has been “reinforced”.  We learn not repeat behavior that has not been reinforced  If behavior is inappropriate, it is because of poor learning (reinforcement was given inappropriately) and…  Will have to be re-learned or (“corrected”) -A strict, environmental (no inner “mind”) explanation of behavior.  No need to postulate about genetic influence.  A criminal is a criminal because of their past learning  They have been reinforce for their criminal behavior and thus repeat it  No need to infer “inner” mental causes  No point inferring about different types of memory; consciousness, etc -Deterministic – all behavior is deteremined by cognitive Cognitive - The major branch of experimental psychology from 1800s to 1930 - Psychology is the study of behavior and the mind (mental states)  What “behavior: did we directly observe and measur
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