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Lecture 10

Psychology Lecture 10.docx

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University of Ottawa
Kenneth Campbell

11/5/2012 1:09:00 PM Place Theory Frequency coded place stimulated on tympanic membrane Intensity codded by frequency of firing Place Theory (Support) Neuronal population throughout the auditory relay system (brainstem > thalamus > auditory cortex) do respond to very specific frequencies) Damage to basilar membrane will result in hearing loss to predictable frequencies Particularly the case for high frequencies Ageing occurs lower hearing Place Theory (Problems) Low frequencies generate a general movement of the basilar membrane. We should therefore hear mixed frequencies, but we do not. Low frequency hearing loss is extremely rare. Volley Theory Frequency theory cannot explain how higher frequencies are coded but place theory can Place theory cannot explain how low frequencies are encoded, but frequency theory can. What about mid-frequencies (1000-5000Hz)? Localization of Sound Time difference between arrival of the sound Intensity difference between ears. Cochlear Implants (Bionic ear) If the cochlea is destroyed, hearing is not possible. Consists of a microphone, a processor, a transmitter and receiver/stimulator, An electrode array (perhaps 20-50), collects the impulses from the stimulator and… Sends them to different regions of the auditory nerve. The sound the listener hears is not completely natural. Only a small number of electrodes not thousands. Problem of encoding in the auditory system. The sound processor send out a signal (pulse) Adaption If a stimulus intensity remains constant, our sensory receptors adapt to it. The receptor is capable of firing. This is due to neuronal fatigue –Constrast Vision Physics of light Electromagnetic signal whose wavelength varies from 400 to 700 nanometers (tis is called “light”). Short wavelengths (400-500nm = violet-blue) The Eye Cornea Iris/Pupil Lens Cones and rods Fovea Blind spot The Retina Outgrowth from the brain Bad sensor because it consists of a series of cells At the back of the 3 layers are light sensors (cones and rods) Optic nerve sensor is infront of light sensors and where it begins is where it blocks rods and cones making the eyes have a blind spot The rods and cones have a chemical reaction to light. If the reaction is strong enough, the bipolar cells will be activated Bipolar cells activate the ganglion cells The axons of the ganglion cells converge at the “blind spot” to form the optic nerve. This system is a filter system to only allow relevant information in The Cones Cones - packed in the centre of the retina, near the fovea (where vision is most acute – “acuity”) Colour vision: three types of cones For red, green, blue A single cone may project to a single (or
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