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Class 7. Learning+Behavious.docx

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Brenda Baird

Learning & Behaviour - Learning: a relatively permanent change in behaviour (or behaviour potential) due to experience - Behaviourism: emphasizes the study of observable behaviour and the role of the environment as a determinant of behaviour Habituation - The simplest form of learning - Habituation is learning not to respond to an unimportant event that occurs repeatedly Classical Conditioning - Pavlov’s Serendipitous Discovery - The Biological Significance of Classical Conditioning - Basic Principles of Classical Conditioning - Conditioned Emotional Responses Pavlov’s Serendipitous Discovery - By observing dogs during the digestion process, Pavlov formulated his theory of classical conditioning New Reflexes From Old - Classical Conditioning: The process by which a previously neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to elicit a response through association with a stimulus that already elicits a similar or related response Conditioning Terms - Unconditioned Stimulus: US o A stimulus that elicits a reflexive response in the absence of learning  Dog food - Conditioned Stimulus: CS o An initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response after being associated with an unconditioned stimulus  Dog Bowl - Unconditioned Response: UR o A reflexive response elicited by a stimulus in the absence of learning  Dog salivates - Conditioned Response: CR o A response that is elicited by a conditioned stimulus; it occurs after the conditioned stimulus is associated with an unconditioned stimulus  Learned the dog bowl meant food, causes salivation US (Food)  UR (Dog drool) + bowl to food US  UR (dog drool)  CS (bowl)  CR (drool) - Pickles running in when he hears the can opener  CS: products (underwear) UCS: Attractive person  CR Pleasant emotional response UCR The Biological Significance of Classical Conditioning - The ability to learn to recognize stimuli that predict the occurrence of an important event allows the learner to make the appropriate response faster and more effectively - Stimuli that were previously unimportant acquire some of the properties of the important stimuli and can now modify behaviour (token economies) Basic Principles of Classical Conditioning - Acquisition o Stimulus Intensity o Timing - Extinction - Spontaneous Recovery - Generalization and Discrimination Acquisition - A neutral stimulus that is consistently followed by an unconditioned stimulus will become a conditioned stimulus Extinction - The weakening and eventual disappearance of a learned response; in classical conditioning, it occurs when the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus Generalization - Occurrence of responding to a stimulus similar to the discriminative stimulus o Respond to something similar even though its different o A dog bit you, you now fear ALL dogs, not just that breed, and now cats o Phobias a created by classical conditioning and maintained through generalization and operant conditioning Learning to Fear - Watson conditioned “Little Albert” to be afraid of white rats by pairing the neutral stimulus (rats) with an unconditioned stimulus (loud noise) - Within days, Albert was afraid of the rats and other furry objects Conditioned Emotional Responses - Phobias are probably an example of a conditional emotional response - Phobias are an unreasonable fear of specific objects or situations, learned through classical conditioning Discrimination: responding only when a specific discriminative stimulus is present (no response to similar stimuli) - Responding to a fire alarm over a recess bell - Discriminating between different signals. Your cell phone goes off, you answer it, you hear someone else’s cell phone – you discriminate against it and don’t pick it up Behaviour Produced through Discrimination Training Operant Conditioning: Overview - The Law of Effect - Skinner and Operant Behaviour - Reinforcement and Punishment - Other Operant Proced
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