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PSY1102 - Developing Through the Lifespan #2 - Chapter 5

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University of Ottawa
Najwa Haddad

DEVELOPING THROUGH THE LIFE SPAN (CHAPTER 5) - part 2 4. Adolescence - period between childhood and adulthood - begins with the onset of puberty and ends when the person assumes adult responsibilities - these days, we spend more time in adolescence than ever before. - two major reasons: earlier puberty and longer schooling - emerging adulthood - grey area where you’re not a teenager, but not an adult, a young adult. Not a teenager in traditional sense, but have not assumed adult responsibilities. Correlates of earlier puberty - genes - social and environmental factors - children who are healthy and well nourished will enter puberty earlier - body size - children who are short and heavy will enter puberty earlier - girls who are in demanding athletics will enter puberty later, 2 years on average - hormones in food - unhealthy family environment, children tend to enter puberty earlier - for both boys and girls, if their is an absence of the biological father, these kids tend to enter puberty earlier 4B. Physical Development - puberty and physical changes - lead to sexual maturity and reproductive organs begin to work - primary sexual characteristics - uterus, ovaries and testes - secondary sexual characteristics (not directly involved with reproduction) - facial hair and voices for men and breasts and hips for women - landmarks of puberty - boys: spermarche (first ejaculation) average age is 14 - girls: menarche (first menstrual cycle) average age is 12 - early maturation - children who enter puberty earlier than average - boys: payoffs - taller, bigger, better in athletics, more confident, parents pull back and trust them more because they are “more grown up” These boys are at a higher risk to do risky behaviours (smoking, drinking, drugs, sexual activity) - girls: negative outcomes - really poor body image, poor image of puberty, probably never even taught about puberty, older men interested in them, sexually harassed, don’t fit in with girls their age, but not mentally and emotionally mature enough for older girls. High risk of pregnancy and weight gain later in life. Parents become more controlling over these types of girls. The Adolescent Brain - work in progress - has not finished developing yet, will finish around age 25 - areas that are last to mature are the frontal lobes - frontal lobes are the seed of higher mental functioning - surge in dopamine activity - associated with pleasure, motivation, emotions, some motor skills - pruning - when your brain starts to cut off certain places or pathways that aren’t being used 4C. Cognitive Development Reasoning Power - thinking will start to have the quality of Piaget’s Formal Stage (abstract, logical, theoretical, hypothetical...etc) - Imaginary audience - personal fable - believe that their experiences are so unique and so special, if they’re sad they think they’re more sad than anyone in the world - believe they are invincible, end up doing stupid things - idealism - some focus on what is logical rather than what is realistic and reasonable given human nature (logical that we don’t lie, but realistically we all lie) develop super high expectations and get disappointed easily Developing Morality - very important, would not have a proper functioning society. - 3 aspects to morality: - moral thinking - kohlberg - he created some moral stories and would give it to children, teenagers and adults and then ask them if the character was right or wrong in the choice they made and explain their answer. He didn’t care about the answer, he only looked at the reasons behind it. - teenagers, adults and children think differently about morals - moral development goes hand in hand with cognitive development - Kohlbergs model 3 stages of moral development - preconventional stage (self interest) - conventional stage (laws become very important, what obeys is good, you follow the law and understand that is how a good society functions) - post conventional stage - values we have chosen ourselves will be the guiding principles. these values have to be based on universal ethical principle. - only 5% will reach the post conventional stage - Ghandi, Nelson Mandela, Dhali Lama - if you are post conventional you respect all beings 2. Moral Feeling - strong connections between moral thinking and moral feelings - social intuitionist - John Haidt - proposes that moral feelings come first and take priority over moral thinking 3. Moral Action - gap between attitude and action - how can we promote moral action? - we have to work on moral thinking, feeling and actions (think about it) D. Social Development DI. Forming and identity - table 5.2 in the book - not on midterm, but is on exam *** - Erikson was a famous psychologist and according to him the major task in adolescence is to develop a sense of identity. Developing a sense of who I am, my values, beliefs, expectations, experiences, skills... - the path to identity - different people take different paths, for some people it is easy and straightforward, they might adopt the values and expectations their parents have for them. - other people may do some soul searching, they try different things and eventually choose one, or a blend and make it their own. - some adopt a negative identity, they will reject the expectations and values of family and society, so they adopt and conform to the values and expectations of a peer group they have decided to join (gang, goths, etc) - negative identity people do not know who they are, they have a confused identity, they change friends, jobs, appearance, frequently - the effect of time - identity will better with time, positive, what do you think, believe and stand for, it it will become more personalized... D2. Separating from Parents - another major task is for us to become more independent from our parents - according to the media, parents and teenagers hate each other... relationship is stormy and stressful. - 97% of teenagers report having a decent relationship with their parents - the “real rebellion” - the quality of the relationship between teens and parents, will effect us in many ways. - those who have a healthy relationship tend to do better in school, better relationship with their peers, healthier and happier, positive consequences. - healthy relationships also tend to make it so that teens don’t take part in delinquent behaviours - peers (see chapter 4) 5. Adulthood A. Physical Development - our bodies peak in our mid twenties - if we remain healthy, we can defeat a lot of the things that decline B. Middle Adulthood - Women - menopause - end of menstrual cycle, end of reproductive capacity for women - does not mean end of sexual activity, just can’t have babies anymore - myth - women become seriously depressed, psychotic, and feel less than a woman. - the reality is - majority of women during this stage report feeling better than they have felt in years, renewed and 98% felt no regret that they don’t have periods - menopause does not increase the risk of clinical depression - Men - don’t have “man” o pause in a traditional sense... - men do have their own version of menopause but... still research - gradual decline in the quality of sperm, speed of erection and ejaculation - myth - men do not usually go through mid-life crisis - Sex - both men and women will continue to desire sex, and will continue to enjoy sexual activity and seek it. - most people report being just as satisfied in their old age as they were in their younger years, some people even say its better. Old Age - fastest growing population in the western world - young people are not producing enough babies - low birth rates - li
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