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PSY1102 - Social Psychology lecture - Chapter 16

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Najwa Haddad

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY (CHAPTER 16) - a scientific study of how the presence of others, real or imagined, influence and affect us. 1. Social Thinking A. Attributions - we define attributions in 2 ways: - the process by which we infer the causes of behaviours - the actual explanation we offer for the cause of behaviours Possible causes for behaviours: - dispositional - situational - interaction - we tend to fall for the fundamental attribution error - when we are attempting to explain other peoples behaviour, we tend to use dispositional factors for the cause. we over estimate the influence of dispositional factors and underestimate situational factors - exceptions to the fundamental attribution error: - when we are explaining our own behaviours - when we are explaining behaviours of people we know very well - when we put ourselves in other peoples shoes - effects of attributions: - determine how you think and feel B. Attitudes and Actions B1. Do attitudes guide actions? - a learned predisposition to evaluate something or someone in a specific way - there could be 3 components to attitudes: - cognitive, emotional and behavioural - attitudes do guide actions, however, people do not always behave in line with their attitudes - we are more likely to follow through with actions when there are outside influences - the attitude is relevant to the behaviour - we have awareness - we have an extreme attitude - frequently exposed to the attitude - public stated attitude - direct exposure B2. Do actions affect our attitudes? - foot in the door phenomenon - when someone says yes to a small request, they are more likely to ask a bigger, larger request/question (parents and children) - role playing - Zimbardo 1972 - stanford prison study - look at the behaviours within a prison setting - took students and made some prisoners and made some guards - study was supposed to go for 2 weeks, only lasted 6 days because everything became so extreme. - average regular every day people, when put in a powerful situation, can become evil and be very mean to people. B3. Why do actions affect attitudes? - Leon Festinger & cognitive dissonance - when we are aware of a discrepancy between our attitudes and our actions, this creates a state of
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