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Lecture Notes for the Developing Person Lectures from Klempan's course from Winter 2010. Comments not part of class notes (extra information said in class) are in italics.

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Rosalinde Klempan

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LECTURE III Thursday January1410THE DEVELOPING PERSON CH 4 AGENDA 1 Developing IssuesNaturenurtureContinuity stagesStabilitychange 2 The NewbornCompetent newborn perception 3 Infancy and ChildhoodBrain developmentmaturationCognitive developmentPiagetSocial developmentorigins of attachmentfamiliarity responsive parentingchild rearing practices 4 AdolescenceDeveloping morality KohlbergSocial development from adolescence to adulthoodEriksonNote you need to know the names of the theorists Development monitors CHANGE and DIFFERENCES over time A development is more than just a change its a progressive change but what is progressEx flexibilityBabies are surprisingly flexible but as they grow they are less flexible but they have more balanced and more coordinatedDevelopmental Issues Developmental ApproachMany areas of study over lifespanex physical social cognitive 3 Issues 1 Nature Nurture2 Continuity vs Stages Is change characterized byContinuitya gradual cumulative changea change in quantityex SkinnerIn his learning approach he believes that all behaviour is learned through processof rewards and punishmentsStagesa sequence of discontinuous and qualitative changesex Piaget Kohlberg Erikson Stage Theorieshave a dominant theme of behaviours at each stageeach stage has qualitatively different behavioursNot quantitative necessarily its a butterflyandcaterpillar kind of stageAll children progress through same stages in same orderThese theorists believe that they are independent of culture a generalized ability3StabilityChangeEg Does personality change over lifespan or remain stableFreud proposed that personality becomes fixed at age 5 and then remains the sameHow could we prove or disprove changes in personalityLongitudinal studiesstudy people over timeResearchPersonality traits seem to stabilize in adulthoodCertain characteristics more stable than othersEx temperamentIn elder years women become much more assertive and directMen become less masculine interms of those masculine traits more laidbackIn these respect women become more masculine and men less feminine ReasonsWomen have to step up and be more assertive because they live longer than men Before that women are trying to find a partnerWhen theyre older they dont care anymore Men in older years need not be competitive anymore they are also not looking for a partnerThe Newborn Perception ReflexesInnate responsesUsed to indicate response to environmentEx gaze time heart rate sucking rate head turningAt birth usually they check for reflexes to make sure a newborn is healthy in terms of their nervous system Ex StudyUsing 2 sounds as stimuliOrienting responseincreased heart rate so increased attentionHabituation response decreased heart rate so decreased attentionHabituations is a decreased responding with repeated stimulationEx sucking ratesucking rate increases with interest if they like what theyre sucking moreAs well babies turn their head to what they preferThere is some feedback on what babies like ResultsNewborns prefer sights and sounds that facilitate social responsiveness AuditoryNewborns hear well and candetect the difference between two tones only 1 tone apartrecognizing mothers voiceVisualPreferhuman faces vs other patterns gaze timeobjects 812 inches away visual system is not fully developed yet they cannot focus thingsmuch closer or farther away OlfactoryCan distinguish odour of own motherHead turning towards gauze soaked in own mothers breast milk related to breast feeding infants that do not breastfed do not develop these kinds of attributes as quickly
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