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Lecture

Psych Disorders.doc

9 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY1102
Professor
Rosalinde Klempan

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Description
Psychological Disorders (ch4) Agenda 1. Defining psych. disorders 2. Understanding psych. disorder 3. Classifying psych. disorders 4. Labeling systems 5. Anxiety Disorders 6. Mood disorders 7. Schizophrenia 8. Personality disorders 1. Defining Psych. Disorders • A harmful dysfunction that shows one or more of 4 criterion Criterion 1. Deviation from statistical norms Atypical behaviour • 2. Deviation from social norms • Behaviour is disturbing Note: • Norms differ from society to society Norms change over time • 3. Maladaptiveness of behaviour • Does behaviour affect well-being of • Individual • Social group • Personal distress may be the only sign/symptom of abnormality 4. Rationally unjustifiable behaviour • Unsupported by popular acceptance All 4 criteria are usually considered • • Insane is a legal term • Whether person knows right from wrong 2. Understanding Psych. Disorders The Medical Model • Sees psych. disorders as similar to physical ones •As illnesses •Require diagnosis based on symptoms •Need treatment Bio-Psycho-Social Perspective • Combining factors interact to produce psych. disorders •Factors are biological, psychological, and sociocultural •ex. anorexia nervosa 3. Classifying Psych. Disorders Advantages • Helps investigate and uncover causes of different abnormal behaviours •Grouping individuals according to similarities in abnormal behaviour: help clarify causes • Improve communication about people with similar symptoms • Help plan treatment based on how similar patients respondedd DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Fourth Edition) • Classification manual of the American Psychiatric Association • Defines major diagnostic categories • Classification used by most mental health experts in Canada & US Traditional Classification Neuroses & Psychoses Neuroses • Group of disorders characterized by anxiety, personal unhappiness, and maladpative behaviour • Assumed to have problems coping with internal conflicts • Individual can usually function in society but not at full capacity Psychoses • Behaviour and thought processes so disturbed that person is out of touch with reality • Cannot cope with daily life Usually need hospitalization • Neuroses & Psychoses • Both are fairly broad categories • Neither are DSM categories - not precise enough • Each category contains a number of classifications within DSM Neurotic Disorders • Anxiety • Somatoform • Dissociative Affective (mood) • Psychotic Disorders • Schizophrenic • Paranoid • Affective (certain types) “Psychotic” Behaviour • ex. distorted perceptions and irrational ideas 4. Labeling Psych. Disorders Disadvantages • A diagnostic label is not a cause • Can overlook differences between people with same diagnoses and not treat each person as unique • Labels can carry stigma • Is the behaviour, not the person being labelled • Value judgment can be associated with labels Anxiety Disorders • A group of disorders where anxiety is main symptom Panic disorders • • Generalized anxiety • Also includes disorders where maladaptive behaviours used to control anxiety • Phobic • Avoidance behaviour • Obsessive Compulsive • Repetitive behaviour Generalized anxiety (GAD) and Panic Disorders GAD High tension each day • • Feels vague uneasy/apprehensive • Tends to overreact to mild stressors • Symptoms • Inability to relax • Disturbed sleep • Fatigue • Headaches • Dizziness • Rapid heart beat • Continually worries about potential problems • Difficulty concentrating and making decisions • May also experience panic attacks (panic disorder) • Episodes of acute and overwhelming apprehension or terror • During attacks feel something dreadful is about to happen • Symptoms of anxiety • Heart palpitations • Shortness of breath • Perspiration • Muscle tremors • Nausea • Severe panic attacks • Person fears they will die March 4 , 2013 Both GAD and Panic Disorders • Usually person has no clear idea why frightened • This is called “free-floating” anxiety as not triggered by a particular event 5. Phobias • Fears are specific Phobia Definition • Responding with intense fear to stimulus/situation that most people do not consider particularly dangerous • Usually realize fear is irrational but still anxiety • Alleviated only by avoiding feared object/situation Fear diagnosed as phobia when avoidance interferes considerably with daily life • 3 Categories of Phobias in DSM-IV: 1. Specific phobia 2. Social phobias 3. Agoraphobia 1. Specific Phobias • Fear specific object, animal or situation 2. Social Phobias • Insecure in social situations and exaggerated fear or embarrassing themselves 3. Agoraphobia • Most common phobia of people seeking professional help and most disabling • Fear entering unfamiliar settings • Avoid open spaces, crowds, traveling • Fear of leaving home in extreme cases • Fear incapacitation by panic attack away from security of home and where no help • Usually very dependent • Harder to treat than specific phobias Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) • Compelled to think bout things they would rather not thi
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