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3. Intelligence.docx

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Christine Mountney

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IntelligenceIntelligenceIs Intelligence One General Ability or Several Specific Abilities Intelligence and CreativityEmotional IntelligenceIs Intelligence Neurologically MeasurableDo we have an inborn general mental capacity intelligence If so can we quantify this capacity as a meaningful numberWhat is IntelligenceIntelligence in all cultures is the ability to learn from experience solve problems and use our knowledge to adapt to new situations In research studies intelligence is whatever the intelligence test measures This tends to be school smartsIntelligence Ability or Abilities Have you ever thought that since peoples mental abilities are so diverse it may not be justifiable to label those abilities with only one word intelligenceGeneral IntelligenceThe idea that general intelligence g exists comes from the work of Charles Spearman 18631945 who helped develop the factor analysis approach in statisticsSpearman proposed that general intelligence g is linked to many clusters that can be analyzed by factor analysisFor example people who do well on vocabulary examinations do well on paragraph comprehension examinations a cluster that helps define verbal intelligence Other factors include a spatial ability factor or a reasoning ability factorContemporary Intelligence Theories Howard Gardner 1983 1999 supports the idea that intelligence comes in multiple forms Gardner notes that brain damage may diminish one type of ability but not othersHoward Gardner Gardner proposes eight types of intelligences and speculates about a ninth oneexistential intelligenceExistential intelligence is the ability to think about the question of life death and existenceRobert Sternberg Sternberg 1985 1999 2003 also agrees with Gardner but suggests three intelligences rather than eight 1 Analytical Intelligence Intelligence that is assessed by intelligence tests 2 Creative Intelligence Intelligence that makes us adapt to novel situations generating novel ideas 3 Practical Intelligence Intelligence that is required for everyday tasks eg street smarts
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