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Lecture

Class 5. Genetics+ Prenatal Development.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY2105
Professor
Caroline Sullivan
Semester
Winter

Description
Genetics & Prenatal Development Ge Chromosomes – store and transmit genetic information.  DNA – substance of which genes and chromosomes are made.  Genes – segments of DNA located along the chromosomes. Chromosomes, Cells, and Sex: Terms Autosomes The 22 pairs of chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes • 23rd pair of chromosomes Sex Chromosomes • Determine sex • XX = female, XY = male Gametes / Sperm and ova Sex Cells Zygote Sperm and ovum united Fraternal/Dizygotic  Two zygotes, or fertilized ova Identical/Monozygotic  One zygote that divides into two individuals Alleles  Forms of the same gene on a pair of chromosomes: o Appear at the same place on each chromosome in the pair o One allele is inherited from each parent Principles of Heredity  Mendel argued that certain traits are transmitted from parents to child o Each trait is governed by two elements with one from each parent o Phenotype refers to the expressed trait o Genotype refers to the underlying genes that govern the trait Dominant Vs. Recessive Traits  Dominant o Brown eyes o Dark hair o Freckles o Dimples  Recessive o Blue or green eyes o Baldness o Blond hair o No freckles o No dimples Are Men Obsolete?  Parthenogenesis: “virgin birth”, reproductio
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