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Class 9. Cognitive Development+Piaget.docx

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Caroline Sullivan

Cognitive Development & Piaget Intro to Jean Piaget (1896-1980)  Piaget was a biologist with strong interests in how children acquire knowledge Piaget argued that the nature of children’s knowledge changes as they develop: Genetic Epistemology Used the Clinical Method of research Basics of Piaget’s Theory  General theory o Considers all aspects of cognition  Constructivist approach  Stages are invariant  Stages are universal Piaget’s Stages of Development  Children move through four stages: Sensorimotor period: Birth through age 2 Thinking is action. Preoperational period: Age 2 to 6 Thinking is based on appearances. Concrete operations: Age 6 to 11 Thinking is based on reality. Formal operations: Age 12 through adulthood Thinking is based on abstractions. Schemes  Are psychological structures  Organized ways of making sense of experience  Schemes reflect an object in the environment and the child’s reaction to that object  For Piaget, development is the reorganization of knowledge into more complex schemes  Change with age Action-based (motor patterns) at first  Later move to a mental (thinking) level Factors Associated with Scheme Formation  Heredity or maturation We are born with lots of knowledge and the sequence of development is predetermined  Social Transmission Piaget recognized that others can influence a child and their growth, but only if biological maturation and acquired experiences by the child allow him to assimilate the knowledge in question  Physical experience Although maturation may be important, if a child does not experiment with the environment around him, he won’t be able to learn  Equilibration We are constantly adapting to our environment, we aim for harmony This is why we necessarily want to understand new information Organization and Adaptation  Organization Internal rearranging and linking of schemes  New knowledge must be merged with old knowledge  Adaptation Building schemes through direct interaction with environment The survival of an organism depends on its ability to fit with the environment Assimilation & Accommodation  Assimilation Using current schemes to interpret external world Used during equilibrium  Accommodation Adjusting old schemes, creating new ones to better fit environment Occurs when the existing structure must be changed to fit new information Prompted by disequilibrium Piaget’s Sensorimotor Stage  Birth to 2 years  Building schemes through sensory and motor exploration Sensorimotor Substages Exercising Reflexes Birth –1 Newborn reflexes month Developing Schemes 1 – 4 months Re
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