Class Notes (834,175)
Canada (508,396)
Psychology (4,040)
PSY2105 (189)

Chapter 14 - Moral Development.docx

10 Pages
Unlock Document

David Collins

Moral Development Recap Chapter 14:  Piaget, Kolhberg, Turiel  evolutionary theories  altruism (paradox, kim selection, rec alt) o aggression (dominance hierarchy) o Pro social behaviours (empathy, sympathy)  Aggression o types; determinants; cognitive biases  Controlling Aggression Morality Issues  Morality involves issues of right and wrong o Moral rules: Broad issues of fairness and justice o Social conventions: Rules used by society to maintain order o Morality has different components  Thought processes that underlie morality are assessed in moral reasoning studies  Emotions associated with moral behaviour  Behaviours governed by morality are assessed in studies of moral conduct Theories of Moral Development Cognitive – Developmental Theories Piaget 1  Piaget’s stage theory: used moral dilemmas to assess children’s thoughts on morality o Stage 1 (2–4 years): Children have no true conception of morality o Stage 2 (5–7 years): Children understand and use rules, but are not flexible in rule use (stage of moral realism)  includes egocentrism and blind adherence to rules  Objective responsibility: Children evaluate moral situations on the basis of amount of damage  Immanent justice refers to inherent justice o Stage 3 (8–11 years): Children realize that rules are conventions and can be altered; children in this stage now consider intention in their evaluations of morality (stage of moral relativism) o Stage 4: children develop rules as needed and extend moral reasoning beyond their personal level  Moral reasoning develops as the cognitive structures of the child develop  Fared well empirically o Children increasingly consider motives and intentions with age o Peer relations are important o Punitive parents show less mature moral reasoning  But o Parents play more important role o Underestimated children (e.g., intent) Kohlberg 2  Kohlberg’s model: presented children with moral dilemmas and asked them to explain their reasoning  Kohlberg’s three levels of reasoning: o Pre-conventional  A person must meet his/her own needs  Morality of punishment and obedience  Morality of naïve instrumental hedonism  Younger children; criminals?  Morality is externally defined  Rules are outside of oneself  Avoid punishment  Stages  stage 1  punishment and obedience  Morality derives from power and authority  stage 2  naïve hedonism  beh guided egocentrically by pleasantness or unpleasantness of consequences  Morality means looking out for yourself o Conventional  Social systems must be based on laws and regulations  Morality of maintaining good relations  Morality of maintaining social order  moral decisions based on perceived social pressure (i.e., approval of others)  rules and law define morality  most adolescents and adults (?)  internalize rules of family/society  Stages  stage 3  good boy or good girl orientation  Morality means doing what makes you liked 3  stage 4  social-order-maintaining morality  What’s right is what’s legal o Post-conventional  The value, dignity, and rights of each person must be maintained  Morality of social contracts  Morality of universal ethical principles  Morality of cosmic orientation  minority of adults  search underlying reasons for society’s rules  obey societal rules for common good, although individual rights sometimes outweigh laws  moral rules have underlying principles that are universal  Stages  stage 5  social contract orientation  stage 6  individual principles of conscience orientation  stage 7  values that transcend societal norms  theory of the development of moral reasoning - right vs. wrong  Studied boys 10 – 17 years old longitudinally  key is nature of reasoning, not specific choice  moral judgment interview o series of moral dilemmas o two principles in conflict o e.g., Heinz  preserving life vs. upholding law  3 basic levels of moral reasoning o 2 stages each  Evaluating Kohlberg’s Model o Invariant sequence is generally supported 4 o Cultural critique  The universality of Kohlberg’s stages  The applicability of some moral dilemmas o Gender critique (Gilligan, 1982)  concept of care, responsibility  women approach moral reasoning from pt of view of responsibility, caring, not the “just” solution  But, not empirically supported (using Kohlberg paradigm)  Turiel’s Model o Children’s moral reasoning involves several different domains  Moral domain is concerned with people’s rights and welfare  Prohibitions against lying, cheating, stealing  Societal domain involves rules that guide social relations  Being polite, wearing appropriate clothing o Children’s understanding of moral and societal issues is influenced by context  Evaluationg Turiel’s Model o Support for independent domains of social cognition  Young children believe breaking moral rule is wrong but breaking social convention depends on context  Wrong to do something immoral even if no rule; ignoring social conventions ok if no rule o Support for notion that moral reasoning influenced by context  E.g., psychological harm ok if part of game Evolutionary and Biological Approaches  The evolutionary view focuses on processes that promote survival and reproduction o Altruism refers to behaviours that benefit another but that may cost the person  Kin selection  The notion that a person will act to aid persons who share their genes (Mother is more likely to act to save 5 her child than her husband; child has more of her genes)  Reciprocal altruism  The notion that members of a group reciprocate in their altruism so that all members are
More Less

Related notes for PSY2105

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.