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Lecture

Chapter 14 - Moral Development.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY2105
Professor
David Collins
Semester
Fall

Description
Moral Development Recap Chapter 14:  Piaget, Kolhberg, Turiel  evolutionary theories  altruism (paradox, kim selection, rec alt) o aggression (dominance hierarchy) o Pro social behaviours (empathy, sympathy)  Aggression o types; determinants; cognitive biases  Controlling Aggression Morality Issues  Morality involves issues of right and wrong o Moral rules: Broad issues of fairness and justice o Social conventions: Rules used by society to maintain order o Morality has different components  Thought processes that underlie morality are assessed in moral reasoning studies  Emotions associated with moral behaviour  Behaviours governed by morality are assessed in studies of moral conduct Theories of Moral Development Cognitive – Developmental Theories Piaget 1  Piaget’s stage theory: used moral dilemmas to assess children’s thoughts on morality o Stage 1 (2–4 years): Children have no true conception of morality o Stage 2 (5–7 years): Children understand and use rules, but are not flexible in rule use (stage of moral realism)  includes egocentrism and blind adherence to rules  Objective responsibility: Children evaluate moral situations on the basis of amount of damage  Immanent justice refers to inherent justice o Stage 3 (8–11 years): Children realize that rules are conventions and can be altered; children in this stage now consider intention in their evaluations of morality (stage of moral relativism) o Stage 4: children develop rules as needed and extend moral reasoning beyond their personal level  Moral reasoning develops as the cognitive structures of the child develop  Fared well empirically o Children increasingly consider motives and intentions with age o Peer relations are important o Punitive parents show less mature moral reasoning  But o Parents play more important role o Underestimated children (e.g., intent) Kohlberg 2  Kohlberg’s model: presented children with moral dilemmas and asked them to explain their reasoning  Kohlberg’s three levels of reasoning: o Pre-conventional  A person must meet his/her own needs  Morality of punishment and obedience  Morality of naïve instrumental hedonism  Younger children; criminals?  Morality is externally defined  Rules are outside of oneself  Avoid punishment  Stages  stage 1  punishment and obedience  Morality derives from power and authority  stage 2  naïve hedonism  beh guided egocentrically by pleasantness or unpleasantness of consequences  Morality means looking out for yourself o Conventional  Social systems must be based on laws and regulations  Morality of maintaining good relations  Morality of maintaining social order  moral decisions based on perceived social pressure (i.e., approval of others)  rules and law define morality  most adolescents and adults (?)  internalize rules of family/society  Stages  stage 3  good boy or good girl orientation  Morality means doing what makes you liked 3  stage 4  social-order-maintaining morality  What’s right is what’s legal o Post-conventional  The value, dignity, and rights of each person must be maintained  Morality of social contracts  Morality of universal ethical principles  Morality of cosmic orientation  minority of adults  search underlying reasons for society’s rules  obey societal rules for common good, although individual rights sometimes outweigh laws  moral rules have underlying principles that are universal  Stages  stage 5  social contract orientation  stage 6  individual principles of conscience orientation  stage 7  values that transcend societal norms  theory of the development of moral reasoning - right vs. wrong  Studied boys 10 – 17 years old longitudinally  key is nature of reasoning, not specific choice  moral judgment interview o series of moral dilemmas o two principles in conflict o e.g., Heinz  preserving life vs. upholding law  3 basic levels of moral reasoning o 2 stages each  Evaluating Kohlberg’s Model o Invariant sequence is generally supported 4 o Cultural critique  The universality of Kohlberg’s stages  The applicability of some moral dilemmas o Gender critique (Gilligan, 1982)  concept of care, responsibility  women approach moral reasoning from pt of view of responsibility, caring, not the “just” solution  But, not empirically supported (using Kohlberg paradigm)  Turiel’s Model o Children’s moral reasoning involves several different domains  Moral domain is concerned with people’s rights and welfare  Prohibitions against lying, cheating, stealing  Societal domain involves rules that guide social relations  Being polite, wearing appropriate clothing o Children’s understanding of moral and societal issues is influenced by context  Evaluationg Turiel’s Model o Support for independent domains of social cognition  Young children believe breaking moral rule is wrong but breaking social convention depends on context  Wrong to do something immoral even if no rule; ignoring social conventions ok if no rule o Support for notion that moral reasoning influenced by context  E.g., psychological harm ok if part of game Evolutionary and Biological Approaches  The evolutionary view focuses on processes that promote survival and reproduction o Altruism refers to behaviours that benefit another but that may cost the person  Kin selection  The notion that a person will act to aid persons who share their genes (Mother is more likely to act to save 5 her child than her husband; child has more of her genes)  Reciprocal altruism  The notion that members of a group reciprocate in their altruism so that all members are
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