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Chapter 12 - Early Social and Emotional Development.docx

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David Collins

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Early Social and Emotional Development Recap Chapter 12:  theories (evolution vs learning vs. cognition)  emotions, affect, int synchrony  temperament o Thomas & chess ( three types); other models (EAS, rothbart)  Attachment o stages (3)  Indiscriminate Social Responsiveness, Discriminate Social Responsiveness, Focused Attachment o assessing attachment  strange situation (ainsworth); initially identified 3 main patterns  q-set  determinants (parental responsiveness; early experiences, aai) Early Social and Emotional Development  Humans form many social relations during development o Some are transitory o Some relations are enduring and important o Social relations are transactional  Infant influences caregiver  Caregiver influences infant  Infant is predisposed to form social relations o Behaviours such as crying and smiling are important tools for the infant Theories of Early Social Development  Evolutionary approaches suggest that babies are programmed with behaviours (crying) that draw the mother close and that the mother is programmed to detect and respond to the baby  Environmental/Learning approach argues that mother-infant attachment results from social learning processes (reward, punishment, modelling)  Cognitive-Developmental models assume that mother and child develop working mental models of each other’s behaviours o Piaget wouldn’t like it cause its to abstract and difficult for the kid  Sociocultural approaches suggest that biology interacts with culture to influence social and emotional development Temperament and Behaviour Problems  Kagan argues for the concept of inhibition to classify infants o Inhibition refers to the tendency to react to unfamiliar events and people with timidity and avoidance o Kagan first examined how a group of 2-year-olds reacted to a strange laboratory setting  Selected those children who were most and least avoidant  Inhibited children showed evidence of greater fear (e.g. fear of the dark) when studied 6 years later  Follow-up those identified as inhibited as children were more likely 12-14 years of age… Attachment: Stages  Phase 1 (Birth – 2 months) [Indiscriminate Social Responsiveness] o Infants emit behaviours such as crying and smiling to many people (indiscriminant social responding) o Mother quickly learns to recognize her infant and to bond to that infant  Phase 2 (2 – 7 months) [Discriminate Social Responsiveness] o Infant focuses attention on the mother  Phase 3 (8 – 24 months) [Focused Attachment] o Fear emerges as a dominant emotion and is expressed in the absence of the mother o Attachment reveals itself in particular in two specific forms of infant behaviour:  Wariness of stranger (stranger anxiety)  When a child is wary and/or fearful in the presence of strangers  May be demonstrated by crying or clinging to their caregivers  Separation protests (separation anxiety)  A set of fearful responses (ex: crying) that an infant exhibits when the caregiver leaves the infant  Phase 4 (3 years+) [Goal-Corrected …] o Child is better able to modulate own reactions and responses, so has decreasing need to seek proximity with their attachment figures o Rel
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