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Lecture 2

PSY2105 Lecture 2: CHAPTER 2- RESEARCH METHOD

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY2105
Professor
Brenda Baird
Semester
Winter

Description
CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH METHODS Scientific Research Scientific method Rules of designing, conducting, evaluating and communicating research Developmental psychologists utilize the scientific method (the system of rules used by scientists in conducting and evaluating their research) in designing, conducting, evaluating, and communicating about research projects. The scientific method is a system of rules for investigation that can be used in many disciplines. Theory A set of standards that describe a relation between behavior and the factors that influence that behavior theory is a set of statements describing the relation between a phenomenon and the factors assumed to influence it. A theory supported by considerable research evidence is a law or principle, Hypothesis A statement as to how one variable(s) may influence another variable(s) Example: high temperature conditions enhance aggression hypothesis postulates an as yet unsubstantiated relationship that will be tested in an experimental investigation. Law (principale) A proven statement supported by strong evidence Responses that produce satisfying consequences are strengthened (law of effect) Objectivity and Measurement The scientific method assumes objective measurement Serves to eliminate bias Aims to operationalize the methods of study so that other scientists can replicate the study (and presumably replicate the research findings) Objectivity can be achieved by: A focus on observable behaviours Ensuing that the behaviors under study are precisely defined and are measurable Using a quantitative approach to measurement A critical element in theoryguided scientific research is objectivity (the requirement that the procedures and subject matter of investigation should be formulated so that they could, in principle, be agreed on by everyone). Use of objective methods allows other scientists to replicate a study, and it reduces bias (e.g., expectancy). Objectivity is enhanced by focusing on behaviours that are
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