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lect 10.docx

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University of Ottawa
Valerie Harbour

nd 2 midterm  Wednesday nov 7 th  Worth 30% of final grade  57 questions total o 48 m/c (more on chapt 5 then chapter 7) o 1 diagram (pointing to the right things) o 8 short answer (4 s/a on chapt 5, 2 for chapt 6 and 2 for chapter 7) o Don’t worry to much about eeg (did not go into it that much, chapt 6) Chapter 7 th Stem cell can either divide into another stem cells, one dies the other other replaces the original one. Or they can divide and one becomes a progenitor cells Neurothrophic factor (be able to differenatiate between this one and eurothropic factors)  Trophic means nur..  This tells us that there are differ. Signals inside the brain that will tell the cell what to become.  Has not yet decided on what type of neuroblast it will become (environmental affects, and within, nurture and nature, time the cell was produced also determines what type of cell it becomes) Growth and development of neurons  2. Neurons and glia are formed and they go /migrate to specific areas  3. Once in the correct region they differentiate/type of neuron or glia  4. After birth and development, cells are mature  5. Formation of synapses, how it works, they form and send messages  6. Very important, happens quite quickly early on in development  7. Myolene formed by obligodenta..speeds up the transmission of neurons, happens late in the teen years. Development of the cortex (graph in book)  Conception all the way to birth. Neurogenessis starts around week 6 or 7 and complete by week 20. Neurons that are produces willb e migrating to the brain, after they migrate they differentiate, then the neurons mature-axon growth Cell birth  Hippocampus makes new neurons throughout life…during dev there’s thousands of neurons produced, but when we talk about neurogenesis it’s just a few neurons here and there…increase like exercise, decrease chronic stress..this affects neurons being reproduced in the hippocampus  Why can the brain cope better, neurogenesis is an increase rate, so if you have an injury in utero at that time, well cell’s are being produced a lot, therefore they can form new cells quickly and take over what’s been damaged, etc  Subventricular zone is lined with stem cells, but they are laying dormant..  Increase neurogenesis, after stroke therefore they will try to reproduce, stress will decrease (this is a small amount) however, a lot of them will just die, and some will stay to become neurons.. 2. Cell Migration  8 weeks after conceptions  Damage more consequent, if a cell does nto migrate to the proper area…but they will follow radial glial which form a path. The neurons will attach themselves to these and migrate to the appropriate location Neuronal migration (image)  Lines are all radial glia cell  Nonradially migrating neuron not following a radial glia, more then likey following a chemical instea of using the radial glia 3. cell differentiation  Begins after cells have beging to migrate  Precursor (initial cell) neuro stem cells, progenitor cell, then divides into a neuroblast or gliablast then divides into the many different types. This has to do with interaction of genes and the environment, will determine what type of cell It actually becomes 2 and 3. Cell migration and differentiation  6 being medial, more inside then outside  Differentiation meanin gthat neuroblast will become what.. 4.neural maturation  Week 20-can go long after adulthood  Arborization , branching out of dentrites  Dendtrittic growth is slower then axongrowth  Neuronal maturation (in broca’s area) – focus on the cortex (image)  Broca’s area is in the frontal lobe important for speech  Neurons stop producing at 5 month after conception…this shows an that when a child is first born the neurons are there but they are short, they are stand alones, no connection between neurons, as the child grows up, the dentrites expand and synapses form and grow. 4.neural maturation (2. Axonal growth)  Axons are guided by diff molecules…  Growth cone will respond 2 diff types, (CAM or tropic molecule – means to move towards come to me or stay away if you aren’t the right neuron vs neurotrophic helps in cell dev.) Image 5. synaptic development  All these stages of development have a genetic component and are affected by the environment 6. cell death and synaptic pruning  Born with an overabundance of neurons and synaptic connections  42% of the synapses you have early on through development (childhood to adulthood) die  Apopotosis (early on in life) is programmed cell death, something will tell the cell to die and it will self destruct . this accounts for the majority of the abundance of neurons that die..however pruning is the rest.. what neurons learn. If a neuron does not form a synapse it will die on eventually this has to do with the target neuron secreting. Neural Darwinism. There could also be errors, and if the errors is not removed, this can cause if there’s an erro
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