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Chapter 14.docx

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Valerie Harbour

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Learning and Memory  Learning:  Memory: o Memory trace: thought to corresponde to physical change in the brain  Pavlov dogs o Classical conditioning  Made association of the bell tone with the food  CS = tone/bell (neutral stimulus ) paire with US which in the end will produce a response, CR= salivation , US=food – that naturally produce a response/salivation, UR – food being present with ssalivations – normal response  Eye blink condi (classical conditioning) o In humans, puff of air in the eye, you blink, paired with a tone coming from a speaker (US= eye blink to air puff o Cerebellum plays an important part in mediating this response.  Fear conditioning (with rodents) o Present a NS (tone, light, etc) pair a tone (CS) with a mild shock and the rat learns that the tone comes about when there’s a shock. Animal has learned to associate the shock with the tone...producing a nother stimulus does not give the same reaction. o Amygdale is important for emotions, fear, memory  Instrumental conditioning (operant condition) o Thorndikes puzzlue box; a starving cat is put in a box, and a plate of food is put outside the bos. The animal needs to find a way out of the box to get the food, and there is a lever placed there for that. At first the animal does it by mistake, but eventually the animal learns to do this. They will do this at a much faster speed, which shows that they learned how to do this. o Skinner box; animal having to do a behaviour to get that reinforcement. Paid a tone or a light, and the animal knows that it has to do a behavior to get a consequence (which is a positive reinforcement) learns the light turns on i press a lever and i get .. (negative, or it would only get it after pressing the lever 5 times, etc) o This can be done with positive or negative reinforcement two categories of memory  Explicit memory o Conscious memory (consciously aware of these memories) can retrieve an item and know that it is the correct one, and if you are asked of something you can remember exactly  Implicit memory o Nonconscrious memory – not really aware of how that information came about  Explicit memory : facts (writing term paper) o Episodic ( remembering passed events related to yourself, being able to recount something that happened to you during school, birthday party, etc) o Semantic; direct in terms of semantic, knowledge of historical events and figures, facts that have to do with others, like you know
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