Lecture Eleven: Violence andAbuse
The home is where the most violence and abuse occurs. In a World Health Organization survey
found that 15-17% of 24 000 women reported some t=sort of sexual or physical abuse by an
intimate partner (depending on the country).
- non-consensual sex was 24% in Peru, 30% in Banglidesh, and 40% in SouthAfrica
Certain cultural practices condone sexual abuse and violence
- 5000 honour killings take place in one year
- sexual cleansing to absolve family of disease
inAfrica, if you take a young woman’s virignity you will not get HIV
Domestic Violence in the USA
- DOJ found that 17.6% of women reported sexual assaults at 22.1% report abuse from an
- 1.3 million women and 850 000 men report assaults by an intimate partner
- of all women who were assaulted or raped, 64% reported the attack was from an intimate
Domestic Violence in Canada
- 4% of Canadians reported spousal abuse in 2014
women were more likely to experience extreme violence
- situation was most dire among aboriginal-Canadians
- 9% in 2014 and 10% 2004 among aboriginals, showing not as much improvement as has been
observed in the rest of the country
- PEI showed a slight increase, but all others showed a decline
Types of Violence
i. Most Serious: sexual assault, threats, beaten, etc — most likely to be women
ii. Mostly Men: kicked, bit, grabbed
iii. Slightly More Females: pushed grabbed, slapped
iv. Equal: threatened to be hit, throwing something
i. Physical: the majority of cases
ii. Non-Physical: could include neglect, verbal abuse, intimidation, restriction of activities
Johnson (2006) proposed the following four deﬁnitions of abuse:
1. Intimate Terrorism: perp is violent and controlling, the victim is neither
2. Violent Resistance: per is violent and controlling, the victim is violent but not controlling
3. Situational Couple Violence: the perp is violent, neither is controlling. This is the most
common type of violence which is perpetrated equally by men and women.
4. Mutual Violent Control: both are violent and controlling, this is the least common type of
Situational is the most common type, but this is mostly found from survey research and self-
Intimate terrorism and violence resistance are more serious forms of violence and the most likely
to be found in court or shelters.
- most likely to be used by men to control their wives
- violence resistance is most likely to be used by wives as a defence mechanism, not for control QuantifyingAbuse: The revised conﬂict tactics scale (CTS2) by Straus et al. 1996 mainly
focused on examining physical aspects of abuse, not the psychological aspects.
This was able to differentiate between minor and severe forms of abuse.
Minor: throwing, pushing, shoving, grabbing, slapping.
Severe: more violent actions.
This was originally designed to measure how people respond to conﬂict, hence it might not cover
situations that exist where conﬂict initiation is not needed, such as intimate terrorism.
In 1993 legislation classiﬁed domestic violence as a hate crime based on gender (making it more
severe than previous legislation).
Truths > Myths
- abuse occurs at every SES level
- most victims were vocal about the abuse
men and women inﬂict violence at similar rates, but men’s tends to be more damaging
- violence often does not occur perpetually and there are often periods of calm
- seeings parental abuse