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Lecture 6

PSY3103 Lecture 6: Operant Conditioning

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Catherine Plowright

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LECTURE: Goal Directed Behaviour: Instrumental or Operant Conditioning Instrumental Conditioning: a method of learning where the individual’s behaviour is modified based on reinforcing or inhabiting consequences The Law of Effect: One of the most important concepts in learning theory. → if a response in the presence of a stimulus is followed by a satisfying event (C), the association between the stimulus (A) and the response (B) will be strengthened; if the response is followed by an annoying event, the association will be weakened. (Thordike, 1998) ABCs ofApplied BehaviourAnalysis: Antecedent, Behaviour, Consequence example: Joe’s Stereotypical Ear Covering → Joe covered heard screaming (antecedent), covered his ears (behaviour), and received a positive consequence (silence) therefore he continued the behaviour. Shaping Behaviour: Abehaviour that is shaped must be in the animal’s repertoire. Using a reinforcer to shape future behaviour. The reinforcer must be relevant to the individual. Example: inpatient learning to speak again using chewing gum as a reinforcer The Four Procedures of Goal Directed Behaviour 1. Positive Contingencies: Response predicts probable occurrence of a stimulus. The stimulus can appetitive or adverse, the presentation of the stimulus can be satisfying (S ) or unsatisfying (S ). If the stimulus is appetitive/satisfying the behaviour will increase. If the behaviour is aversive/unsatisfying the behaviour will decrease. → this creates positive reinforcement where something positive is presented as a reinforcer or positive punishment where something negative is presented as a punishment 2. Negative Contingencies: Response products the probable withdrawal of a stimulus.Again, the stimulus can be appetitive or aversive, the withdrawal of a stimulus can be unsatisfying (S ) or satisfying (S ). Leading the behaviour to increase because of the withdrawal of an adverse stimulus or for in to decrease with the withdrawal of a pleasant stimulus. → this creases a negative punishment or a negative reinforcement Punishment: makes the individual feel bad, decreases behaviour Reinforcement: makes the individual feel good, increases behaviour Negative: something taken away, can be seen as punishment or reinforcement Positive: something is given, can be seen as punishment or reinforcement Contingency: positive if something is presented, negative if something is removed Satisfying (S ) for the individual Unsatisfying (S ) for the individual 3. Stimulus Belongingness: Some stimulus-response associations are more easily recognized than others. (ex. making your child eat asparagus for being bad in school will not work because there is too much time in between and the antecedent, behaviour, consequence does not belong together. 4. The Reinforcer:Astimulus whose delivery shortly following a response increases the future probability of that response. Prima
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