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Five Schools of Behaviourism.docx

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University of Ottawa
Christine Boisvert

Five Schools of Behaviourism 1. Methodological Behaviourism • One of most extreme versions of behaviourism • Should not reference anything internal • Felt all behaviour was reflexive • S-R Theory – stimulus –response theory • Connections between environment and corresponding response in behaviour • Ex: dust up your nose causes you to sneeze • According to watson, learning would just be a whole bunch of S-R one after the other • Not about conscious thoughts, feelings or motivations • 3 basic emotions – love, rage, fear • Come into the world with a few basic reflexes and 3 basic emotions • Everything else is learned • Bc everything is learned, doesn’t matter who you are, or who your parents are • If I put you in a certain environment I could make you be anything I want you to be 2. Hull’s Neobehaviourism • Felt Watsons complete rejection of unobservable events was not scientifically sounds • Should include unobservable events in an operational manner • Hunger, drive, fatigue • Ex: hunger • Number of hours since you last ate • Intervene between environment and observable behaviour • Still S-R theory but there is a mediator • Rat in a maze, see how fast he gets through • If he is hungry he might go through the maze faster • Internal event mediates between environment and behaviour • Shouldn’t use introspection 3. Tolman’s Cognitive Behaviourism • Analyzing behavior in broader ways • Instead of understanding rats in S-R train • Its more helpful to look at it in a goal directed attempt to find food at the end of a maze • The whole is greater than the sum of its parts • Intervening variables were mentalistic • Enviroment doesn’t directly impact behaviour • Motivated by expectations and hypotheses • Put rats in a maze • Recorded the number of times they are in maze, and how many errors they make • The rats that got food at the end would get through the maze faster, with less mistakes faster than the first day) • The rats that didn’t get food got better too but not as greatly • On the 11 day, one of the other two groups starts to get food at the end • According to hull they should only be starting to learn now • On day too when they were in the maze they got so fast, dramatic improvement • Example of latent learning • Happening but no evidence of it • Rats were developing cognitive map • Cognitive map = Mental representation of ones spacial surroundings • Disproving that there always needs to be a reward 4. Social Learning Theory • Bobo doll • Emphases that cognitive variables are just as important • Reciprocal determinism • Circle instead of a line • Thoughts influences the environment, environment can influence our behavior, behaviour influences are thoughts, etc • Included introspection in methodogy 5. Radical Behaviourism • Thought we should go back to stricter form of behaviorism • Skinner is not the most extreme • Felt you went in circles when you used internal things to explain behaviors • Ex:
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