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3- Somatosensory.pdf

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University of Ottawa
Catherine Plowright

General TopicsThe Somatosensory Chapter 3 in textSystemTouchThermal sensationsProprioceptionKinesthesisPain1212Touch SubtopicsThe Many Stimuli of TouchSomatosensory neurones respond to The stimuli of touchphysical changes in skin mainly involvingAnatomy of the skinPressure stretchcompressionTypes of mechanoreceptorsVibration movementBrain areas processing touch sensationsTemperature cold or heatTactile acuity and vibration sensitivityThese combine to elicit higherorder Haptic object perceptionsensations such wetness or smoothness34PressureVibration2Measured in Pascals Nm or if area is kept constant and Variations in skin pressure across timegravity can be measured in grams gFrequency of vibration is measured in Hertz Pressure thresholds vary depending on many factors such speed and depthdistance of skin deformation body Hzcyclessecondlocation area of skin affected etcAmplitude of vibration measured in meters An Esthesiometerusually mThe basis for the sense of movement across the skin which is important in eg tool use56TemperaturePainMeasured in degrees Celsius CExcessive intensities of pressure vibration and temperature as well as pH produce Decreases or increases from physiological painful sensationszero 32 C are detected respectively by The pain threshold varies according to many cold and warmth thermoreceptorsfactorsThreshold for detection depends on rate of 2Pain is in general a very complex and subtle change Cs and area of skin cm topicaffected among other things78Skinsome MechanoreceptorsAnatomy of SkinHeaviest and largest sense organ by farTwo main layersEpidermis Outer layer made up mainly of keratinized skin cellsDermis Below the epidermis Contains three categories of mechanoreceptors Two types of skin Hairy and hairless no shaving doesnt change the type with different elastic properties910910MechanoreceptorsSensory neurones Signal pressure on skinRespond to mechanical deformation of the receptor or associated structure Three main categoriesEncapsulatedAccessorystructureassociatedFree nerve endings1112
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