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Lecture 8

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University of Ottawa
Peggy Kleinplatz

November 11 2013 – Lecture 8 Sexual Assaults, Sexual Abuse - By definition a husband could never be prosecuted for raping his wife, because they were married - 1983: sex crime seized to exist – now it is called sexual assault, the victim and the perpetrator could be a man, women or minor - 4 types of actions that constitute the crime of sexual assault o Penis and vagina o Oral sex o Forced manual stimulation or penetration o Anal sex - Prior to 1983 you needed evidence of semen – full penetration, since then the crime is that somebody is trying to do this, not how far they got, no difference between attempted rape or repeated rape - We now view sexual assault the same way we view any other type of assault - Moving sexual assault into a category as a sex crime to any other crime is to de- stigmatize it and see it just as a crime - The degree of trauma suffered depends on prior sexual experience – NOT TRUE, fear of everyone is that of being killed - But by moving in into the category of assault the perpetrator is charged based on the degree of injury to the victim, sadly in cases of sexual assault injuries cannot be seen they are mostly emotional and it is viewed as a crime of violence Psychological effects – myths, realities, and why people continue to believe in things that aren’t true - Women ask for it, and one way they do so is the way in which they dress – MYTH o Video for Madonna comes out targeted to females and they see it as that is how they should dress or look, whereas males of the same cohort see it as asking for it o Myth that there is a correlation between how you dress and sexual assault o Most sexual assault victims are not women, they are children and mostly boys (1/4 boys and 1/3 girls in Ontario is sexually assaulted before the age of 16) o Who do we want to blame if not the perpetrator? The victim? We do not like the idea of a world where bad things can happen to good people o She asked for it only works when she is dressed provocatively and he is turned on – crime of passion, I couldn’t help myself, couldn’t control it – predicated on the notion that sexual assault occurs at the spur of the moment o On average sexual assaults are planned 6 weeks in advance – getting the drugs, befriending someone o Myth that men are unable to control themselves is nonsense – shifts focus from blaming the perpetrator to blaming the victim for causing him to lose control - People assume it will happen by a stranger and people believe it will happen in a dark alley o For every sexual assault made by a stranger there are 19 done by someone you know quite well o Number one place to be sexually assaulted is in your own home, you know them well, you invite them over and are okay with being alone with them o Second place to be sexually assaulted is the perpetrators home o Usually someone you see daily, so it makes it hard to report it o Most studies show that 96-97% of sexual assaults on kids are committed by someone they know, mostly family o Less likely to report when it is someone you know or someone you believe should be trusted - You can always week solace with priests and police officers – MYTH, many times they are perpetrators - Social access basis of sexual assault o DA – crown attorney in Canada – they get the evidence form the police department  The best victim is a dead victim – nobody can say that they asked for it, nobody can dispute the victims intentions  Sex workers are the worst victims – if they charge for giving it away then nothing is seen as sexual assault - There are cases of false accusation, but more so than that there are many under reportings - Rural communities believe incest only happens in the big city, and the big city believes incest only happens in rural communities – but this is false, they happen equally - Biggest myth in America: black men are perpetrators and white women are perpetrators, people are more likely to be sexually assaulted by someone of the same ethnicity Levels of sexual assault on university campuses is remarkably high - In the U.S ¼ women will get sexually assaulted - Only 1/20 will be reported From a psychosocial point of view - Presence of alcohol usually involved - In Canada law says that alcohol is ?? - If someone sexually assaults you while drunk it automatically means you were not in your right mind to say yes and therefore they perpetrator is guilty - If you have only had a couple of drinks but you start feeling weird, light headed and nauseous, chances are it’s not too much alcohol, but rather that you have been drugged Drugs can be found in your system up to 24 hours after – rohipnal Conditions under which we are more likely to blame the victim - Presence of alcohol Effects of alcohol - Central nervous system depressant - Studies conducted at the university of Manitoba – began with audio being played of a women being sexually assaulted o Made students listen to this and asked if they would ever do it – almost everyone said no o Made students listen to it but asked if they would do it if they could get away with it – 2/3 would say yes o 3 conditions  Does not continue alcohol and did not – 80% said they would never do it, 20% said they would  Given alcohol and told it contains alcohol – 2/3 said they would do it, 1/3 said they wouldn’t  Gave them non-alcoholic beverage but told them it contained alcohol – 2/3 said they would do it, 1/3 said they wouldn’t … even though there was no alcohol involved, alcohol is functioning as an excuse,
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