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Lecture 8

PSY3123 Lecture 8: Lecture 8.2

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Guergana Roumenova Mileva;

Lecture 8.2: Family and Work Dual income families -Majority of families are dual income -Interplay between work and families responsibilities puts pressure on family Average hours of work per week -Has gone down -Doesn't mean people have more time- just means both parents work -Different in comparison to European countries who value family time more Dual Income families -Majority of families are dual income -Women working more and men working less -Interplay between work and family responsibilities outs pressure on family -Dual earners are making a lot more money (roughly 20k more in 10 years) Role Changes and Choices -Women follow one of four different life paths: 1. Homemaking 2. Plan a traditional marriage but end up in labor force 3. Always wanted careers, reluctant to become mothers and homemakers 4. Planned to have careers, but circumstances prevented this Choosing the path Paths chosen seem to depend on 1. Stability of the marriage 2. Job opportunities 3. Ability of woman’s partners to earn enough so she can stay home 4. How rewarding she considers homemaking Why this change in roles? -Hard physical housework has been reduced through technology -Shift from wage-earner husbands to dual-earner families has not meant an equal shift in household responsibilities -Most housework is still done by women Household responsibility -When children are present, both parents assume more work -Mothers gain two hours versus fathers’ one hour -To allow for childcare and housework, mothers cut back on paid work, leisure, personal care -Father's reduce leisure activities Role Expectations -Interesting note: women spend more time with their children now than they did in the 60s -Major stressor in dual-income families is the expectations of family members -Expectations of employers and fellow co-workers may be anti-family -Shift work can cause major stress in families Work and marital happiness Studies show: -Little connection between the fact that mothers worked and their marital satisfaction -Night or rotating shift, marriages were at greater risk for separation -Women’s perception that they carried unfair household responsibility in addition to their jobs was connected with marital dissatisfaction Work and family conflict -A form of conflict in which work and family demands are mutually incompatible -Work-family conflicts have progressively worsened -Individuals must now fill more roles than expected of them in the past -55-60% of parents say they are struggling to juggle the extra roles Conflict -Many have problems balancing demands of work and family -Role spillover -A situation where family and work roles or time demands interfere with each other -Ex: First responders (police officers, doctors, firefighters) are almost always on- call -Role overload -The perception of being stressed or overwhelmed by the pressures of multiple family and work roles -Bi-directional: family effects work life and work life affects family life -Women are more likely to let family responsibilities interfere with work ones and men do the opposite Caregiver strain -The
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