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Lecture 10

PSY3123 Lecture 10: Lecture 10

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University of Ottawa
Guergana Roumenova Mileva;

Lecture 10: Violence in the Family Family Violence -Recently has come into light -First child abuse, then wife beating and elder battering -Family Violence -Any form of abuse, mistreatment, or neglect that children or adults experience from other members of their family -Abuse -A situation in which a person takes advantage of a less powerful person Child Abuse -In canada, formation of Children’s Aid Society in Toronto in 1891 -After the term “battered child syndrome” started in early 1960s -Mandatory reporting laws passed -1991: Canada signed UN Convention on the Rights of the Child What is Child Abuse? -Physical, sexual, emotional abuse -Includes neglect and any violence children see or hear in their families -Physical abuse vs. Corporal Punishment -The intentional use of physical force against a child resulting in injury or causing bodily harm -Any kind of physical force used to inflict pain and which serves as a punishment for an offence or to discourage inappropriate behaviour Child Abuse -Sexual abuse -Includes any form of sexual conduct directed at a child with or without physical contact -Emotional abuse -Any situation in which a child is seriously or repeatedly subjected to behaviour that could cause harm to the child -Neglect -Failure to give appropriate attention or care to a child, resulting in serious emotional or physical harm How often does child abuse or neglect occur? -Unknown -Change in statistics depends on -Changes in public and professional awareness -Changes in legislation and definitions affect reporting rates -Emotional abuse is more difficult to prove than physical abuse Why low reporting rates? 1. Since it is frowned upon, it is kept secret 2. May be to afraid or too young 3. Professionals who see abuse may not realize it is their responsibility to report it 4. Excuses for injury may seem plausible 5. People feel it isn't their business Which children are at risk 1. Unwanted children 2. Children living with a lone parent 3. Children born Prematurely 4. Children with physical or mental challenges or those in poor health Risks Continued -If you are a girl you are -More likely than boys to be abused by family member -At higher risk of sexual abuse What kind of people abuse/neglect their children? -Older studied showed -Young and unmarried -Mainly from lower SES 1. Coping is poor in abusive parents 2. Poor self esteem 3. Perceive parenting as stressful 4. Isolated 5. Mental Health/ Substance abuse problems Children and Adolescents who abuse -How can we differentiate between “normal” and abusive siblings behaviour 1. Power difference 2. How often does this behaviour happen 3. Pressure/Secrecy 4. How harmful are these interactions 5. Is this behaviour outside normal siblings rivalry/ normal sex play? 6. Do parents stop the behaviour appropriately What about children who abuse parents? -When teen/young adult tries to control parent -Mothers more likely to be victims (7/10) -Most of the accused are male -Not much is know about this -Why? Effects of abuse on children -All forms of abuse are harmful -Outcomes depends on 1. Type of abuse 2. Frequency 3. Severity -Not all children suffer serious or long term effects -Resilience Symptoms of abuse -Physical -Broken bones -Genital bleeding -Death -Emotional -Depression -Post traumatic stress disorder -Behavioural -Agression -Delinquency -Apathy and withdrawal -Substance abuse Official response to child abuse -No definition of child abuse -Child protection laws are in place at both national and provincial levels -If abuse is severe, abuser is prosecuted -If less severe, children’s aid society takes over -There are contradictory pressures on protection agencies -Prevent abuse vs. not being “child snatchers” Abuse between partners -intimate partner violence -Violence committed by legally married, separated divorced or common-law partners current or previous dating partners and other intimate partners -Types of abuse vary -Physical assault -Psychological abuse -Restriction of movement -Economic restriction -Sexual abuse -Homicide Spousal violence statistics in Canada How many partners are assaulted -2011: 78,000 incidents of violence against women reported -intimate partner violence against women 542 in 100,000 (4x higher than in males) -Women and men at greater risk of violence by dating partners than by spouses Women at special risk -2009: nearly 13% of aboriginal women aged 15 or
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