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Lecture 13

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Jon Houseman

MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY OF THE RETINA The most direct pathway for visual information to exit the eye is photoreceptors bipolar cellsganglion cells In response to light ganglion cells fire action potentials which propagate down the optic nerve to the rest of the brain Retinal process is influenced by two additional cell typesHorizontal cells receives input from the photoreceptors and project neurites laterally to influence surrounding bipolar cells and photoreceptorsAmacrine cells receive inputs from bipolar cells and project laterally to influence surrounding ganglion cell bipolar cells and other amacrine cellsThere are two important points to remember o Only lightsensitive cells in the retina are the photoreceptors All other cells are influence by light only via direct and indirect synaptic interactions with the photoreceptors o The ganglion cells are the only source of output from the retinaThe Laminar Organization of the Retina Laminar organization means that the cells are organized in layers see Fig 912 Light must pass from the vitreous humor through the ganglion cells and bipolar cells before it reaches the photoreceptors The pigmented epithelium lies below the photoreceptors and plays a critical role in the maintenance of the photoreceptors and photopigments It also absorbs any light that passes entirely through the retina and minimizes the reflection of light within the eyeGanglion cell layer innermost layer and contains the cell bodies of the ganglion cells o Inner plexiform layer between the ganglion cell layer and inner nuclear layer and
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