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Lecture 7

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University of Ottawa
Jon Houseman

THE PSYCHOANALYTICAL PARADIGM  Psychoanalytic or psychodynamic paradigm was developed by Frued. it means that psychopathology result from unconscious conflicts in the indiv Structure of the mind  Frued divided the mind into 3 principal parts: id, ego and superego  1) The id is present at birth and is the part of the mind that accounts for all the energy needed to run the psyche. It comprises the basic urges for food, water, elimination, warmth, affection and sex.  Trained as a neurologist Freud saw the source of all the ids energy as biological. Only later at the infant develops is the energy which Freud called libido converted into psychic energy all of it unconscious below the level of awareness  The id seeks immediate gratification and operates according to the pleasure principle. When the id is not satisfied tension is produced and the id strives to eliminate this tension  Another means of obtaining gratification is primary process thinking –generating images—in essence fantasies— of what is desired  2) The ego is the next aspect of the psyche to develop. Unlike the id the ego is primarily conscious and begins to nd develop from the id during the 2 6months of life. Its task is to deal with reality. Through its planning and decision making functions called secondary process thinking the ego realized that operating on the pleasure principle at all times is not the most effective what of maintaining life. The ego thus operates on the reality principle as it mediates between the demands of reality and the immediate gratification desired by the id  the final part of the psyche to emerge is the superego which operates roughly as the conscience and develops throughout childhood  Freud believed that the superego developed from the ego much as the ego developed from the id. As kids discover that many of their impulses such as biting or bedwetting are not acceptable to their parents they begin to incorporate  introject, parental values as their own to enjoy parental approval and avoid disapproval  The interplay of these forces is referred to as the psychodynamics of the personality  Much of human beh is determined by forces inaccessible to awareness. The ids instincts as well as many of the superegos activities are not known to the conscious mind. While the ego is primarily conscious and is involved in thinking and planning it too has important unconscious aspects that protect it from anxiety.  Freud considered most of the important determinates of beh to be unconscious Neurotic anxiety  When ones life is in jeopardy one feels objective (realistic)anxiety –the egos reaction to danger in the external world according to Freud.  The person whose personality has not developed fully due to fixation at a stage may experience neurotic anxiety- a feeling of fear that is not connected to reality or to any real threat.  Moral anxiety arises when the impulses of the superego punish an indiv for not meeting expectations and thereby satisfy the principle that drives the superego—namely the perfection principle Defence mechanisms –coping with anxiety  Neurotic anxiety can be handled by means of a defence mechanism.  A defence mechanism is a strategy unconsciously used to protect the ego from anxiety  Most imp is repression which pushes unacceptable impulses and thoughts into the unconscious. By remaining repressed these infantile memories and desires cannot be corrected by adult experiences and retain their original intensity  Denial entails disavowing a traumatic experience such as being raped into to the unconscious.  Projection attributes to external agents characteristics or desires that an indiv possesses but cannot accept in his or her
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