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Forensic Psych Notes

17 Pages

Course Code
Sharon Kennedy

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Week 1 Narrow definition of Forensic Psychology The professional practice by psychologists within the areas of clinical psychology counseling psychology neuropsychology and school psychology when they are engaged regularly as experts and represent themselves as such in an activity primarily intended to provide professional expertise to the judicial systemBroad definition of Forensic Psychology A research endeavor andor a professional practice that examines human behaviour in relation to the legal system Psychology Versus Law Haney 3 ways in which psychologylaw interact Psych and the law psych in the law psych of the law Psychology AND the Law Psychology is used to examine assumptions made by the law or legal system For Example Do offender treatment programs work The assumption is that they doPsychology IN the Law Psychology being used in the legal system as it is operating For Example Expert testimony police officers using everyday methods of psychology on the job Psychology OF the Law Using psychology to understand the law itself 7 Ways in which Psychology and Law differ Hess Way in which Psych and Law Psychology Law differ Knowledge How it is learned Psychology is learned through Law is learned through stare research decisis Precedent within the law Methodology Psychology is nomothetic It Law is idiographic It is based looks at trends and processes around an individual rather than Looks at how groups do things a group and why Epistemology Uncovering Psychology conducts Law is adversarial truth is truths experiments to find the truthdefined by whoever wins a case Criteria Criteria for defining truth in Criteria for defining truth in law psychology is strict is not strict For example Beyond a reasonable doubt balance of probability Nature Psychology is descriptive It Law is prescriptive in nature It describes what people actually describes what people should do do Principles In psychology alternative In law the goal is to convince the explanations are always judge and jury that there is only considered one correct explanation Latitude Psychologists as expert Lawyers have far fewer witnesses have their actions restrictions on their behaviour severely limited by the courtCattell 1893 Focused on the psychology of testimony Conducted tests on peoples memories on everyday things Found that peoples results were often inaccurate Cattell 1893 cont Tested peoples differences in levels of confidence and whether or not confidence has any indication of being right or wrong Found that confidence has no bearing on whether someone is right or wrong They can be completely confident but wrong or not confident at all and wrong Cattells study was low on external validityInternal Validity The degree to which the intervention being evaluated really caused the effects estimated in a study Lab studies External Validity The ability of a studys results to apply to the general population in real world circumstances Field studies Stern and Liszt 1910 Staged a classroom encounter in which actors pretended to fight and one pulled out a gunWhen asked questions about the encounter witnesses answers were often inaccurateFound that emotions reduce recall accuracy Von SchrenckNotzing 1896 When there is extensive pretrial press coverate it effects what people actually see what is remembered Retroactive memory falisification When people believe they saw something that they didnt actually witness because of what they have been told Munsterberg 1908 Father of applied and Forensic psychology Wrote On the Witness Stand Discussed psychological factors that can change a trial
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