PERSONALITY – FEB 5
3. “Force” Humanistic
a. No one knows you better than yourself – opposite of Freud, who believed people were deeply
unconscious of their personality.
- Existential philosophy – existential psychology
- Carl Rogers,Abraham Maslow
Born in the Midwest, rural community
Started with agriculture
Academic background in Columbia in Psychology
New York Child Clinic
Opposed to Freudian point of view, wanted to work against this.
- Person-Centered approach
Started with people in psychotherapy, into general theory of personality.
Applied the theories into larger social issues, not just individuals.
- Fully functioning people
Having a good life is a process that occurs over time continually
Direction to be sought after.
People optimally have a drive to seek out the sense of satisfaction.
Those who take part in this are ‘fully functioning people’.
Generalized actualising drive
Process of realising full potential – “Be the self one truly is.” - Enhanced functioning in three areas
Apprehension to experience
Be in here and now in present moment
Trusting own intuition.
- Believing in the self, self-concept
I or Me
How we view ourselves might be in agreement with how we are.
Self-concept and experiences with self agree
• Unrealistic or rigid beliefs about self.
Confusion and maladaptive behaviour.
Slightly below awareness
Might cause anxiety if become aware, so avoid it.
Not consciously aware of it.
• More like the pre-conscious • No repression - dealt with distortion and denial
Re-imagining an experience so it doesn’t cause anxiety.
Inability to accept something that has occurred
• Awareness would result in anxiety
Result of anxiety, or effects of attempts in avoiding it.
- Positive regard
Can be provided with circumstances to develop self-worth
Certain interpersonal conditions can facilitate/block development.
Conditional positive regard – conditions of worth ***
Certain conditions can only fulfilled in relationships with other humans
Universally learned need
• Experiencing oneself is making a positive regard in other people’s lives.
Condition attached to the positive regard
• I’ll like you if you do ____/ act this way.
Feel prized in some respect but not in others.
• Affected by the “If”.
Unconditional positive regard
Communicate positive regard with no strings attached
• Accepted simply for being who you are.
Always approve of what other person does in order to give them positive regard
- Individual as person vs individual’s behaviour. Eg. Parent – can love child unconditionally as person/child, but not the action they do/did.
It’s the behaviour you don’t like, but still positively regard them as an individual.
- Cue sort technique
To show that therapy is working