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Chap 16.doc

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Carolyn Gordon

• Intelligence: ability to learn, remember information, recognize concepts and their relations, and to apply information to behaviour in an adaptive way. Its definition depends on cultural judgements. • Studying intelligence has 3 major approaches: o Differential approach: creating tests to measure differences in how people solve problems; o Developmental approach: based on the way children learn to think about the world; and the o Information Processing Approach: focuses the types of skills people use to solve problems. Theories of Intelligence • Spearman’s Two-Factor Theory: intelligence determined by 2 factors o g factor: general factor, common to all intellectual tasks. “Three qualitative principles of cognition”: apprehension of experience, education of relations, and education of correlates. o s factor: specific to a particular task. o Empirical evidence for this theory comes from correlations between tests of particular intellectual abilities. Factor analysis is a statistical procedure identifying common factors among groups of tests. Each common factor would be a specific ability. o Factor loadings: how strong one test is related to a particular factor. • Factor analysis can only bring to light intellectual abilities which the basic tests are able to measure. • Thunderstone extracted seven factors of intelligence, which were then found to include a second-order factor similar to Spearman’s general intelligence. • Cattell performed a second-order factor analysis on Spearman’s work and two major factors. o Fluid intelligence (f ): culture-free tasks, seeing relations and patterns. o Crystallized intelligence (c ): acquired information from a culture, learned in school. o If left to the same experience, one with more g dfvelops more g . c Crystallized intelligence depends on fluid intelligence to be acquired. • Information-Processing Approach Theory of Intelligence: Sternberg`s Triarchic (rule of three) Theory of intelligence. Managing individual`s combination of strengths and weaknesses lead to success in life. o Three parts together comprise Sternberg’s “Successful intelligence”: ability to analyze and manage personal strengths and weaknesses. o 1) Analytical intelligence: mental mechanisms used to execute tasks. Three functions:  Meta-components: deciding a strategy for solving the problem;  Performance components: processes used to solve it; and  Knowledge acquisition components: used to gain knowledge and integrating it which what they already know. o 2) Creative intelligence: dealing effectively with novel situations and applying previous knowledge. Automating problem solving. Sternberg said that fluid intelligence is used when tasks demand new approaches, otherwise crystallized is used to automate the solution. o 3) Practical intelligence: reflect our behaviours that were subject to natural selection, three forms:  Adaptation: how to plug oneself into an environment to best develop useful skills;  Selection: ability to find one’s own niche in the environment (Eg: finding a career they find uniquely interesting); and  Shaping: changing the environment to find a niche (Eg: starting their own business). • Supporting evidence of different factors of intelligence: damage to frontal lobes does not lower IQ, but it impairs the ability to plan and live normally. • Neuropsychological Theories of Intelligence: Gardner’s theory that intelligences are potentials that may be activated in an individual to the extent which their culture values the expression of these potentials. Evidence is that different areas of brain damage affect different abilities. Eight of Gardner’s intelligences: o Verbal-linguistic intelligence o Logical-mathematical intelligence o Visual-spatial intelligence o Naturalist intelligence: similar to Sternberg’s adaptation practical intelligence. o The rest of them have not been recognized by psychology as distinct. • Gardner’s theory recognizes the view of intelligence held by non-Western cultures. • Unschooled people are unable to solve syllogisms (logical constructions with a major and minor premise, the premises are assumed true and the conclusion is evaluated on the basis of the premises). They approach problems different, Eg: based on personal experience. Intelligence Testing • Galton: intellectual abilities are heritable. • Binet-Simon Scale: intelligence test that was the precursor of the Stanford- Binet Scale. o Norms: data concerning comparison groups, allows individuals to be assessed relative to his or her pears. o Mental age: level of intellectual development that can be expected from an average child of particular age. • Stanford-Binet Scale: intelligence test, various tasks grouped according to mental age, provides a standard measure of IQ. • Intelligence Quotient (IQ): a single measure of general intelligence, mental age (test scores) divided by chronological age (actual, calendar age) times 100. This is the same as the “ratio IQ”. • Deviation IQ: modern way of calculating IQ. Compares an individual’s test scores with those of other’s of the same age. • Wechsler’s tests: o Wechsler’s Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS): contains tests divided into categories of verbal and performance. Wechsler’s Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) was developed for children from the WAIS. • Reliability of intelligence tests is how often the same person achieves the same score on the test. • Validity of intelligence tests is assessed by the correlation of test scores and the criterion (another measure of the variable being assessed, for example, self-reporting). • IQ correlates strongly with school performance, about .50. • It is difficult to formulate bias-free tests of IQ. Different backgrounds and cultures are exposed to different vocabularies and different emphasises are placed on different skills. Score differences may be cultural, not intellectual. • Self-fulfilling prophecy phenomena: one’s expectations about what will happen lead them to act so that the expectations come true. Parent’s knowing a child has a low IQ score may affect his or her development. • IQ tests help detect specific learning needs in otherwise bright children. • Mental retardation: below-normal mental development caused by injury or abnormal development. There are 4 degrees: o Profound mental retardation: most severe, IQ below 20. Require total supervision. o Severe mental retardation: IQ from 20-34, almost always need total supervision. o Moderate mental retardation: IQ from 35 to 54, can live semi- independently. o Mild mental retardation: IQ from 55 to 70, able to live independently and maintain employment. The Roles of Heredity and Environment • Heritability: a statistical measure, expresses how much variability of a particular trait in a particular population is a result of genetic differences. It measures relative contributions and differences in genes and differences in the environment to the overall variability. o If there are no differences in a trait, there is no heritability. Not the same as genetic influence. o Heritability refers to a population, not individuals. o Heritability depends on the amount of variability of genetic factors in a population. Mixed communities of Western societies therefore have higher heritability measures. o The relative importance of environmental factors depends on the degree of EV (environmental variability). Same idea as above, but regarding environment. o Heritability is affected by the extent which genetic inheritance and the environment interact, Eg: calm classrooms paired with only excitable children and stimulating classrooms paired with only calm children would produce low variability. • Hebb’s two components of the term “intelligence”: o Intelligence A: biological potential for intellectual development. o Intelligence B: what is measured on IQ tests, biological component couple with the environment. • During development, neurons must establish proper connections. It is possible for the human organism to be affected by environmental factors even before they are born. • Harmful prenatal environment factors include physical trauma and toxins (Eg: alcohol). o Fetal alcohol syndrome: smaller infants, facial abnormalities, mental retardation. o Down Syndrome: genetic disorder, not hereditary (improper chromosome division occurs). • Types of factors that influence potential intelligence: o Conception: genetic endowment of the person. o Prenatal development: Good nutrition, normal pregnancy without trauma or toxins. o Birth: anoxia (lack of oxygen) or head trauma can lower potential intelligence. o Infancy: good nutrition, stimulating environment for full cognitive development. o Later life: increased chance of dementia or multiple infarcts where there is loss of neurons. Results of Heritability Studies • Correlation between parent and child is the same regardless of upbringing. Genetic similarity is important for the correlation between IQ scores. • Heritability increases with age, people choose their own environments when they are independent. • Specific abilities (Eg: vocabulary) are related to environment. • Race tells us very little about intelligence. American blacks usually tend lower-quality schools than whites. We are measuring performance with tests, not a person’s inherited intellectual ability. Thinking • Thinking is a private event, not all of it involves language. We can think in shapes and images. • We do not consider objects or events independently, we categorize them. A concept is a category of entities that share common attributes. o Formal concept: category of objects defined by listing common characteristics, like dictionary definitions. Used by experts in particular fields. Boundaries are precise. o Collins and Quillian: strings of related words elicited faster responses. However, our brain isn’t very hierarchical and tidy. “A collie is an animal” elicited a faster response than “A collie is a mammal”, even though “A collie is a mammal” is more relevant hierarchically. o Natural concepts: category of objects based on a person’s perceptions, based on exemplars (memory of examples of entities that are used as a basis for classifying them). Used by ordinary people. Boundaries are fuzzy and not all members are good examples (saying a penguin is a bird is not as good as saying a swallow is a bird).  Basic-level concept: makes important distinctions between different categories (chair and apple, for example). Most often thought about, good for cognitive economy (easiest to think about, least resources used).  Superordinate concept: collections of basic-level concepts, (furniture and fruit, for example).  Subordinate concept: refers to types within a basic-level category (Eg: Macintosh apple, lawn chair). • Concepts can represent things more complex than exemplars or collections of attributes. Can include relations among elements. • Concepts are the raw material of thinking. Deductive Reasoning • Deductive reasoning: infer specific truths from general principles. Used in syllogisms (described above). o Mental models: people do not apply formal rules of logic to solve deductive reasoning problems. They Instead they use mental models: constructions based on physical reality used to solve problems of deductive reasoning. o Highly correlated with spatial ability, not verbal ability (hence, the above). People with parietal lobe damage have difficulty answering such questions. o Selection tasks (a type of complex problem) are easier to understand if physical things (such as beer and teenagers) are used instead of abstract things (such as numbers and letters). o “Pragmatic reasoning schemas”: a set of mental rules used when dealing with issues of causality, permission, and obligation. Proposed by Cheng and Holyoak. o Being able to convert abstract problems to tangible mental models is an important aspect of intelligent thinking. Inductive Reasoning • Inductive reasoning: just the opposite of deductive reasoning, inferring general principles or rules from specific facts. • One trial is not enough to recognize a concept or rule. Without special training, people do not follow scientific thinking and do not seek a control group. This is called ‘ignoring the base rate’. • Confirmation bias: seeking evidence that confirms a hypothesis rather than seeking to disconfirm it, a logical error. We tend to not try to disconfirm our hypotheses. Problem Solving • A problem is a state of affairs with a goal, but we do not understand completely how to attain it (Holyoak). • Spatial metaphors characterize the problem-solving problem. There is an ‘initial state’ (where you are now) and it is different from the ‘goal state’ (where you want to be). There are various ‘operators’ (actions that can be taken) available to move states. ‘Problem space’ comprises all the possible states that can be achieved if all possible operators are applied. The ‘solution’ is the sequence of operators (path) that moves you from the initial state to the goal state. • Algorithm: procedure consisting of a series of steps that solve a specific type of problem. • Heuristics: general rules that guide decision making. Tell us which strategy to take. • Means-end analysis: a heuristic that can apply to any problem: looking to reduce differences between the current state and the goal state, and adjusting as the current state changes. At all times in the problem-solving process, we are looking to reduce the distance. o Good solution: smallest number of actions, minimizing associated costs. o ‘Planning’ involves trying out actions in our heads, experts are better at planning because they know many of the consequences of many actions. We must know consequences of actions in order to plan. Chapter 12: Lifespan Development • Lifespan development psychology: studies the changes that occur over the course of a lifespan. Prenatal Period • Prenatal period: Nine months between conception and birth. • Zygote stage: first stage of prenatal development, single new cell divides rapidly. • Embryonic stage: two weeks-8 weeks after conception. Embryo can react reflexively to stimulation. During this period teratogens (agents that can cause birth defects) can affect the fetus. o Sexual development occurs during this stage. The gonads will develop into either ovaries or testes depending on an XX or XY chromosome inheritance. o Androgens: primary class of sex hormones in males, most important androgen is testosterone. Female sex organs develop naturally and do not need to be stimulated, but male sex organs are stimulated by androgens. • Fetal stage: third and final period of prenatal development, seven months, begins with appearance of bone cells and ends at birth. Fetus may show kicking movements. Can survive if born prematurely during this stage. • Threats to normal prenatal development: o Malnourished mother, affect’s fetus’ nervous system and intellectual deficits may result. o Certain antibiotics (tetracycline) can product defects. o Cigarette smoking reduces oxygen to the fetus and results in miscarriage or low-birth weight babies. o Cocaine produces dramatic effects: some babies may be born addicted. Makes attachment between mother and baby difficult. o Alcohol is a well-studied teratogen mentioned in Ch. 11. Physical and Perceptual Development in Infancy and Childhood • At birth, most movements are reflexes: rooting (turning head towards a light touch on the check), sucking, and swallowing. • Maturation: change in behaviour or physical growth due to the aging process, not experience. • Motor skill development requires practice and maturation of the nervous and muscular systems • Newborn’s senses function to a certain extent. Newborns indicate taste through facial expressions. Show a preference for the odour of their own mother’s breast. They can recognize their mother’s voice early on. • Visual perceptive abilities of infants are studied with an eye-tracking device. A one-month old baby does not look inside figures, it only scans around it. Two month olds will investigate the interiors of figures. • Six-month-olds would not venture onto a visual cliff, indicating that they are able to judge depths. Retinal disparity is one clue for depth perception (the difference in how an image falls onto each eye’s retina). This is called stereopsis as the brain fuses the slightly different images together. Stereopsis will not develop it unless they have experienced viewing objects with both eyes early in life. • Critical period: a period of time in development during which a certain experience must occur for normal development to occur. Cognitive Development in Childhood • Most effective kinds of learning occur when an infant’s behaviour has tangible effects. o Watson and Ramey: one group of babies were initially given access to a switch that controlled an overhanging mobile. They learned to control it with head movements. Another group was only given control after they had spent some time with the mobile, they did not learn to control it. Losing control usually produces facial expressions of anger. • Infants raised in cribs, physically isolated, had limited opportunities to
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