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6 - Public Administration, Public Policy, and Policy (Program) Evaluation.doc

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University of Ottawa
Public Administration
Frank Ohemeng

1 *Public Administration, Public Policy, and Policy (Program) Evaluation* Understanding Public Policy Making Defining the concept Explaining the policy making process Examining and critiquing the various theories of policy making Policy or Program Evaluation What is public policy? What is the policy making process? What are some of the theories used in explaining public policy making? How are policies implemented? What is the essence of policy evaluation? Public Policy *know two* Thomas Dye - Whatever governments choose to do or not to do. Les A. Pal, (2006) - A course of action or inaction chosen by public authorities to address a given problem of interrelated set of problems. Peter Aucoin (1979) - Public policy must be considered to encompass the actual activities undertaken by a government, whether or not a governments objectives and strategies are explicit, or are congruent with its activities. James E Andersen (1984) - A purposive course of action followed by an actor or a set of actors in dealing with a problem or matter of concern. Gregory P. Marchildon (2001) - The systematic laying out of the objectives of a government as well as the practical measures that are proposed to achieve those objectives. What is in these definitions? - Policy can be a case of action or inaction - Policies are specific courses of action 2 Explaining the Policy Making Process - The policy process is continuous. It does not stop since government policies are virtually always in a state of change. - Citizens make demands, government has to react Policy Making Process - A simplified model of the policy making process: - Formulation Implementation Evaluation The Policy Cycle explain with diagram for extra points - The policy cycle is the term used to describe the lifespan of a policy, from its formulation, to the review. - It comprises of: - Needs assessment & agenda setting; - Planning & policy formulation; - Policy legitimation; - Policy implementation; - Policy monitoring/evaluation and feedback. Applied Problem-Solving 1. Problem recognition - Something is wrong and something must be done 2. Proposal of solution 3. Choice of solution 4. Putting solution into effect 5. Monitoring/evaluating results Stages in the Policy Cycle explain with diagram circle for extra points 1. Agenda setting - By Cabinet - Refers to the process by which the problems of society comes to the attention of government 2. Policy formulation - How policy options are formulated within government 3. Decision-making & policy ligitimation - The process by which government adopts a particular course of action 4. Policy implementation - Relates to how government put policies into effect 5. Policy evaluation - Refers to the processes by which the results of policies are monitored by both states and societal actors, the outcome of which may be the re- conceptualization of the policy problem and solution3 Types of Policies 1. Regulatory policy - Designed to limit the actions or behaviour of people or groups so as to protect the general public or a substantial portion of the public - Example: ban on smoking in public places 2. Distributive policy - Perhaps the most common form of government policy - Government uses general tax revenues to provide benefits to individuals or groups either through grants or subsidies 3. Redistributive policy - Take taxes from certain groups of people and give them to another group. - Generally thought of as benefiting less advantaged groups at the perceived expense of the advantaged - Ex: funding tuition fees - Spreading money around to help close the gap between the rich and the poor. Ex: using income taxes - Among major redistributive policies are tho
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