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PAP2320 Lecture 5

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Public Administration
Joshua Zaato

Lecture 5 (Jan 21rst): Structuralist, Humanist, and other approaches to Public management Structuralist theories:  Structuralist theories view workers in administrative and bureaucratic organizations as little more than interchangeable parts – cogs in a machine lubricated by money  Hence, the aim of the Org theory is to devise creative methods, means, and structures within which work can be rationalized so as to maximise Org theory  Little or no regard is given to the needs, aspirations, and desires of workers, who are expected to marginalise and subdue their interests to the bureaucratic machine  Structuralist theories are therefore mechanical in nature, with one main objectivfe of maximizing the 3Es. o Efficiency, economy, efficacy Structuralist theory and human nature Structuralist theories rely on a particular view of human nature that suggest that  People are only motivated by material and financial gain  That workers require strict regime of rules and regulation, determined and clearly spelled out by management in order to function at maximum efficiency Structuralist theories, therefore see human beings as tools and instrument to be used in the supreme interest of the organization Scientific management One of the most influential Structuralist theories in PA in scientific management  A school of thought taught in the 1800’s in response to increasing industrialization and technological change in the work place o It led to a growing distance between owners of capital and workers in industries  As a result more rationalised form of Org and control was needed to maximise productivity and profitability  At its core, Scientific Management ideas were aimed at how managers could adapt this changing trend to their advantage into maximizing productivity and profits Fredrick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915) Fredrick Winslow Taylor has been recognised as the father of Scientific management  His main unit of analysis was the individual worker in the work place He began to develop his ideas while working in as a pattern maker and machinist at the Midvale Steel Company in Philedelphia in 1880 At This time, work was still not very routinized or even rationalized, and more informal processes orf organizing work dominated:  Workers were mostly left alone to do their work  Space of work was not set by machines  Foremen were given the freedom to set their own standards and to regulate breaks Taylor regarded these practices as haphazard, inefficient and in need of drastic change immediately Time and motion studies “Rather than allow individual workers to set the pace and to carry out their own tasks, he set time on how long any particular job should take and outlines a strict way and manner in which a job should get done”  Using a stop watch, Taylor sought to scientifically discover the shortest time possible for performing any significant task  He recorded the time it took to perform the most elementary motions such as: o Finding the steel rod, o Setting it onto a lathe, o Picking up a tool  Analysing a large volume of studies, he found that the shortest possible time for performing each individual motion  These experiments and studies became collectively known as Time and Motion Studies in PA The “One best way” and division of labour After the time and motion studies Taylor’s further studies established what he referred to as the One Best Way approach To achieve this, a complete overhaul of the firm, including planning, engineering, purchasing, and inventory controls were all centralised The role of management, according to Taylor, was to discover this one best way and fully implement it to all work processed Under no circumstances should workers be allowed to solve production problems themselves, that is the monopolised domain of management  Workers should just be instructed on how to perform their jobs One Best Way Finally, Taylor saw the division of Labour as a basic principle controlled by a hierarchical pyramid of authority driven by efficiency Other Theories of Scientific Management Luther Gullick and Henry Fayol were two staunch disciples of the SCM Tradition The
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