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Lecture 7

PAP 3370 Lecture 7 January 27th 2011.docx

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Public Administration
Frank Ohemeng

PAP 3370 – Theories of Organization Lecture 7 January 27 , 2011 Universality Management -management principles can be applied in a universal way -managerial knowledge may be transferred from one country to another or from one organization to another organization within the same country -the concept of universality of management is therefore subject to two connotations -a. Management principles can be successfully applied to different kinds of organizations such as business enterprise, hospitals, public organizations etc. -b. Management principles are applicable to different economic systems of the world. They have worldwide utility. Arguments in Favour of Universality -Management Process -some scholars argue that management as a process is universal -it means that the fundamental functions of planning, organizing and controlling are basic and are performed by all managers regardless of the type of enterprise or organization -Differences between Fundamentals and Techniques -management fundamentals and techniques are not alike -management fundamentals are basic principles or theories -management techniques are tools for performing managerial functions -application of management fundamentals may vary in different situations but not the fundamentals themselves -the principles, concepts and skills of management are therefore universal (only the practices change) -Common Problems of Effective Use of Input -although the objects differ, all organizations require certain common principles, concepts and skills of management for allocating scarce resources such as time, human resources, capital -managers shift or move from one organization to another and from one industry to another -such movement indicates that there are general skills and principles of management at work Arguments against Universality -Differences in Objectives -the objective of an organization determines the type of management required -because of differences in objectives, the competence, skills and the experience in management cannot as such be transferred and applied from one organization to another -it therefore implies that a person cannot demonstrate equal effectiveness in all types of organizations -Differences in Philosophy -differences in philosophy of various organizations may not allow a person to be an effective manager in all types of organization -differences in philosophy therefore require different managerial types of techniques -these philosophies will exert different kinds of influences on productivity, organizational structure, delegation of authority, communication, span of management etc. -Differences in Culture -culture means attitude, beliefs and values in society -identifiable cultural differences bring variations in managerial behaviour patterns -management philosophy is culture bound and hence is not universally applicable -if a country has a strong traditional, religious and cultural bias towards non-scientific behaviour, it will be difficult to introduce modern methods of management -What are the basics of administrative management? -1. That managing is a process and can be dissected intellectually be analyzing the functions of the manager -2. That long experience with management in a variety enterp
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