SRS November 23
– Three that we've seen so far – simple sorcery, folk magic (cast a spell, throwing salt over your
shoulder, planting a root cross at the dark of the moon etc.)
– it exists everywhere in the world, it has always existed, and always will exist. Just stuff that we
do because that's how our brain works. We are hardwired to really enjoy fairy tales, to try and
find a back door. If we weren't, we wouldn't be good scientists. Curiosity. Try to find another
– In a sense, simple sorcery is interesting, but only so far, unless you're collecting recipe books
– our story, of the middle ages and the Renaissance are based on the diabolical witchcraft
– the second kind: diabolical witchcraft. ##For it to exist, 1 an appropriate intellectual
structure. 2 Mediation of that structure from the elite to the people at large. 3. Marked
social tension and fear. Awitch hunt can't occur without those three things.
– In this case, witch hunt basically means finding an expendable scape goat who can't protect
themselves. Aconvenient scape goat.
– Backtrack – what was the appro. Intellectual structure, or framework? The most important one
is the concept of Satan. Notice that when we talk about Persia for the first time, we talk about
an expert in evil. The general, the bad guy. The son that was jealous, and was at the head of the
army of all those who do evil. We also needed the Hebrew notion of Shaytan, which is where
the word comes from. Comes from Job in the bible – he really loved god, god bragged to the
devil, “I’m not afraid of you, i have people like job.” the devil says “cause he has a good life,
give me permission to make his life a bit harder, and we'll see how much he loves you.” bad
things happen to good people so they can prove that they;re good people.
– Satan actually provokes bad actions, but it's to give humans the opportunity to give humans the
chance to use their free will
– in Greeks and Romans, we go to the damons, some were good, bad, indifferent. Intermediate
beings between the gods and the humans. Interacted with humans. Furthermore, the greco-
romans had a bunch of these damons who took animals form, and tended to be male spirits,
centaurs/minotaurs/mermen/satyrs/ pan as a demi-god -> how many of these will feed into the
christian idea of the demon? Since more of these half animal/male tend to be sexually potent,
which is bad to the Christians.
– By the time we get to the gnostic, we have also the gospel of john, which is the apocalypse,
which is a reworking of the Persian end of the world. The war between good and evil. The four
horsemen are seen as four devils who come and ravage the world for the end time where good
and evil will be sorted out.
– At this point in the apoc, they're as powerful as good. Most people believe that, and it takes a lot
of preaching from the church to pull them back from them. People who are not theologians will
wonder if the devil is stronger than god
– 1553 there is a council, the council of Trent, made up of bishops. For the first time, the devil
(not demons, but the devil) is described and named as god's enemy. The lines are drawn. He is
god's enemy and he he acts in the world by possessing a body, since he doesn't have one. The
only way that he an work in the world is by possessing a body. He can only take a body if the
soul within the body is weak – allows him a way in. Weak people are easier to possess than
strong people. Talking about morality, not physical strength, but the two will mean the same
thing. 14th-15 the church, through a series on counsels, will put together a dictionary or
encyclopedia about the evils in the worlds. Who's in charge of causing floods, fevers, etc. How
much power do they have, how to get rid. Exorcism is codified, many types, depending on what
kind of devil is doing the harm. This is the same time as when they're coming up with dictionaries of angels, opposing forces. The end time has not occurred, so the balance hasn't
been tipped. Equal on both side.As important as it is to see who's doing evil, it's important to
identify who's doing good.
– This is the structure – Satan.Another structure that is the body of Christ.All that are Christians
are cells in the body of Christ, that body is perfect, therefore all the cells should be perfect etc.
Therefore there must be something from outside the body that had entered and made the cells
ill. You put those two things together, and logically, you have to figure out who's the foreigner -
- figure out what's introducing evil, and get rid of it, and go back to being a-OK. Intellectual
framework. Not enough, figured by the religious elite. Since the pope anoints the king, w/o the
pope's permission you can't be king, politics and religion are the same thing – these beliefs are
the beliefs of the elite. Start going on in the universities. The only people there are men, who
have entered the religious order. They are not open to secular, and not open to women.
– The mediation of that structure happens at the beginning through sermons. Sermons – telling
you what to believe.
– These sermons are being given by professional sermon givers. 11 hundred, 12 hundred. Really
early in the middle age. The ones who are trained are the Dominican monks. They are
eventually replaced by he Jesuits. These monks, who are not parish priests, will go through
Europe as missionaries, and if you want as Geiger counters. They are looking for heresy –
which is a false belief. There is a debate over superstition and heresy. Superstition was wrong
headedness, but dangerous. Heresy is wrong headedness, but not dangerous. You could once
believe in fairies/elves, until they believed that fairies/elves were thought to be demons. These
were done from the top down. The people didn't believe different, or act differently. But what
they were doing in their simple peasantness got interpreted differently by the elite. Checking
village to village if the priests was well enough to know what he was talking about, or to recog.
Sin, or if he had the courage to punish his folk when he has sinned.
– For fun – watch the movie sorceress, french movie, 1980s, on youtube, a wonderful review of
everything that we've talked about.Areal romanticized story, very close to the historical truth.
– Finished with intellectual structure, on to mediation. Talked about the monks moving through
europe. The salvation army was literally invented as the army of salvation. Soldiers of Christ to
save the souls of the people who needed to be saved. The souls of the rural poor, mostly.
– You also have Gutenberg happening – the invention of the printing press in 1450. for those who
can't read, you have lovely little illustrations that were printed in the 10s of thousands, and sold
at market for a fraction of a penny, and people had these in their homes. They were hot stuff.
“this is what the devil, a witch looks like.” you were well off enough to buy these.
– When it was handwritten, a book was worth as much as a house -- nice house. In today's
money, it would be like a brand new car. Not cheap. But, by the time you can print one, the
price plummets, to something like one month's salary. Still expensive, but much less expensive.
And you're doing 100 at a time. Literally it's like a computer, not like the beginning of the
computer, but more like the pcs and the macs.
– Most important to our story, is the malleus maleficarium – the hammer of the witches. “the
hammer used to get rid of those who do evil.”
– 1486 – 36 years after Gutenberg. It will be a bestseller. Used and republished up until the 1950s.
Ashelf life of 500 years. It was a how-to – how to recognize those who do evil, and what to do
about it. What to go about. We'll look at a flowchart.
– Those are the four mediation – how the elite got their messages down to everybody. (43 minutes
in) the printing press, the illustrations, the witch finder books (malleus), and the preacher
– Where did the marked social tension and fear come from? You of course had the disasters, war, famine, the little ice age. It rained for two year without stop – nothing grew, everything died,
then the animals died. For 5 years in England and France, people died of starvation. The
peasants revolted against bad kings, like Edward the second. 1325 in England. Was egotistical,
and spoilt. Felt it was OK to squeeze money from the peasants so he could have fun. The french
had bad kings, too. There was a time where there were three popes. Plagues, etc. In times of
peace, the soldiers were mercenaries. If you weren't a soldier, weren't allowed to have
something to defend yourself, except farm implements. Not surprising with all of this
happening, that for 300y from 1100 – 1450, had a religious war called the inquisition, and then
after 1450, we have basically the witch hunts. The worst of them start in 1550 to 1650 (check
– that's the middle ages.
– Which countries did what? Spain is early on, and so is Italy. There is nothing but christian,
check recording. Here, notice if god is all-powerful, and your job is to obey his will, any action
who take that is meant to change your fate, is disobedience of god.And of course simple
sorcery is about changing the rules – about an unfair advantage, changing the results. In the pov
of the church, indulging in magic is disobeying god's will. Spain and tally – basically, the
inquisition is at that level. But by the time is gets to France, Germany, Belgium, Switzerland,
and northern Italy, (the lower countries). Western continental Europe, we're fully engaged in the
search for diabolical sorcery. By this point the church has deiced that magic and sorcery can
only be done by the devil + demons through a human body. Humans don't do it, they do. By the
time you get to Britain, Scandinavia, Scotland, you're in catholic/protestant warfare. You'll
notice that Ireland is still there.
– Break happened, next up, the Renaissance.
– Her email works again, this upcoming week will be in office, Tuesday, Thursday, Friday.
– The final exam – same format as everything else that we're doing. Have read all of your
readings at least once. There will be 90 questions, 45 marks. 3 times the size of what we’ve had
so far. 2M per questions. In her finals, bring something to eat and drink, cut down on the
caffeine. Hard intellectual work. Do not bring sugar, bring protein. Bring something to drink.
Use some magic. If you were in class and heard her give the class, somewhere in your memory
is the sound of her voice giving us the information. Therefore, during the exam, you can ask our
memory to replay her voice.
– Secondly, we are allowed to use post-its in our work. Not allowed to use an electronic means, so
print out your notes. Make notes for yourself. Practise. By now we know she didn't teach the
course as it's normally taught, so old exams won't help us. Same format as the tests. Choose the
best answer. Fill in blanks, give in English. We've noticed by now that yes she has tricky
questions, but life is tricky. Try and find out what one word in that sentence could change the
meaning. If you notice a run in the questions, or build on each other, don't discount that.All
exams until now have been practise for the final. Might ask stupid questions that we should
– There's going to be somethings that we haven't emphasized as much. 102m – silly question like,
only women can be witches, which is false. We are responsible for all the readings that are
online. We will be getting two other ones, two charts, that she strongly suggests that we print
out and study. Amazing charts. If we want to use ink, only use blue and black, but c