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Westphalian States, Reconstructed Religions, Secularism.pdf

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University of Ottawa
Religious Studies
Peter Beyer

 THE POLITICAL DOMAIN  The European Continent o Why is Europe called a continent anyway? The ones in power write history  From the Roman Empire to the Middle Ages o No political unity  Standard political entity is a monarchy  Fluctuating boundaries; roman empire has not been replaced with a standard map (separation of politics and religion)  Many centers of political power  Simultaneous rise of the Roman Catholic Church o Multiple political units part of a single religious unity  Reformation era causes the loss of religious unity o Churches began fighting with each other for about 100 years; wars of religion, biggest ones set in France o Lasted through the 16th and much of the 17th century o Would not have happened if not for the religious disunity o States are at war with each other, but also within each other  The solution of the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 o Symbolic end point to something that is very consequential o Europeans believed in order to have a good society you need to have religion, yet it is religion that is tearing the nations apart o Decided to use political disunity to solve the problem of the religious disunity o Sovereignty: the power of a state to rule over its own domain o Political boundaries mark territories that are sovereign o States mind their own business and don't interfere with each other o Necessity of having a precise boundary: there is another sovereign state right next to you  THE RELIGIOUS DOMAIN  Christian as system and as people o By 362 CE, have already achieved the dominant status in the Roman Empire (from zero) o Their sense of what christian is:  Shares with Islam and Judaism that it is a system. Totality makes sense. o Among Christians and Muslims: You can stop being one  Judaism: You can't stop being Jewish regardless of how bad of a Jewish person you are.  The unity and development of Roman church o Christians from very early on are organized. o Bishops centre of local organizations o By the reformation era, the distinction between the clerics and the lay has become extremely strong  The late medieval push to incorporate the laity o A movement within the Roman church that said that there shouldn’t be a tiny group of people who are very religious and a large group of people who do whatever they want o Wanted to reform the laity o Sometimes turned violent o Church then starts to operate like the state and attempts to regulate the lives of people  The Westphalian Formula: cuius regio, eius religio o To whom the realm, his religion  The leader of the church gets to decided what religion that the people in his region must adhere to o This can give us the idea of how religiously tolerant the state will be  Why is this important?  RELIGION AND POLITICS IN "TRADITIONAL" EMPIRES o The diagram: vertical lines represent the ruled class o Roman Empire has an upper strata o Often combined with the ruling and ruled classes, there is a periphery division  Usually the provinces. Ie, better to be Istanbul than in the provinces o Economic distribution and exploitation o Social mobility o Status and ostentatious display o Conquest and stability  Empires are often unstable and must find way of expanding  The way to do this is to conquer new territories  When an empire stopped expanding, the stream of revenue stops and there becomes a problem when people start to feel like the empire cannot do anything for them o Communication and administration  There was sometimes a problem with communication and the administration of the conquered territories that were far away o Religious legitimation  Having to tolerate other religions isn't much a problem  GLOBAL EUROPEAN EXPANSION  A peculiar imperialism o 1492, Columbus plans to find a trade route to India- decides to go West even though East would have been easier but the Muslims controlled all the seas' trade routes and the Roman Catholic Church had a terrible relationship with the muslims. o Many states in competition to do things before/better than each other  Mostly trying to expand their imperial reach beyond themselves  Large imperial powers have built a large empire in other parts of the world outside of Europe.  But European empires aren't necessarily the strongest empires in the world o Multi-dimensional and not really coordinated  Economic expansion  Beginnings of capitalism  Proliferation of economic companies  Religious expansion  Scientific expansion SEPTEMBER 13, 2013  GLOBAL APPROPRIATION o Variable incorporation in system controlled by Europeans (until 20th) century: high point is between 1750-1950 (no precise); no European domination before/after this  Colonization  Part of this world is progressive colonization  Europeans establishing societies here, overrunning indigenous people (still living with consequences); ie Australia, S Africa  Conquest and colonies  Way to simply gain more power; India, most of Africa, Southeast Asia  Not entire world  Political domination & economic in
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