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SRS2195 (10)

Islam and Islamic Politics

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Religious Studies
Peter Beyer

Origins and Rise of the Ottoman Empire  Empire founded by ethnic turks; they formed what are the "-stan" countries in the modern day  Ottoman empire proper founded by Osman (1299-1326?)  Geographic apogee o Expansion of the Empire begins in the 1500s and ends in 1683 when the Europeans stopped the empire from continuing to expand  Relations with Europeans o Ottoman empire is sitting in the middle of many other political units that are like it Religion and Politics in the Ottoman Empire: A 'Traditional Empire'  Gazis (holy warrior) and sultans (Islamic Legitimation) o Theirs was a Muslim enterprise o In the beginning they were Emirs, became Sultans (kings) and stayed that way o After 1517, Sultan became Caliph (leader of all muslims everywhere)  Had this title until 1920s o Political legitimation at the same time as religious legitimation  Military and subjects o Conquer territories, put them under his power and exploit their economic resources o Deal: this trritory is yours to do whatever you wish, but come war, you must provide me with people for my army o What happens when you can't expand anymore? There are economic consequences  The Sultan and his independent ennobled elite o The sultan must build a military force out of people who do not have ties to people that were given those territories to rule over o Janissaries: would recruit young boys from sub-altan territories; often from Christian families. They would raise them as good Muslim soldiers for the Sultan's army  Was not raiding and stealing your son; often a way to provide them more social mobility  Religious diversity o Sutans organized this in a particular way o Muslims, then everybody else (usually Christians and Jews) o Dhimmi status: protected but subordinate o Ottoman millet system  Islamic jurisprudence and administration o Shari'a and alternate law  The role of Sufi Islam (known as mystical Islam) o Particularly organized o Very important in Turkish history and the republic o There are brotherhoods: You know who is and who isn't o Each suborder is known under the name of a specific founder o Parallels the official structure but does not contradict it o Bekstasis: Have a long and complicated order  Anti-establishment sectarian  Particularly popular among the Janissaries o Mevlevis  Well-known, long history o Naksibendis  3 former Turkish prime ministers o Sufi Islam is organized in a certain way European Ascendancy and Ottoman Response  The technological tide o Until latter part of 17th century, this Empire was an expanding one, then ceased to expanded o After 1683, the military power balance changed, or revealed itself to have changed o Europeans cared about themselves, but didn't have much of an influence anywhere else in the world o Europeans started this process of constant innovation o 1571: Battle of Lepanto, eastern mediterranean  Christians finally beat the Ottomans in battle o 1683: Battle of Vienna  Europeans defeated Ottomans because they had a technological superiority which they kept and developed o The Europeans are in ascendancy and the Ottoman empire begins to shrink, more so on the European side  Ottomans: Continued losses and the necessity of reform o They begin to try to be like the Europeans  As a means to regain power o They begin to learn the French language, as it was the largest spoken European language at the time  They used to children to go to Europe to learn the languages and use the books  The children read the textbooks but also get access to novels and philosophical ideas (time of the enlightenment)  From Selim II to Mahmud II o Selim  From 1789 onwards believed in reforming military forces because he believes they are being beaten militarily o Mahmud  Gets rid of the Janissaries  Timars abolished; modern taxation created o They started creating a modern bureaucracy o They do reorganization at the social level  Translation office- an entire school system  Source of a new educated elite; the people who acquired these funny ideas  The Tanzimat (period of the reorgnization o Concerned with developing for
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