Locke: Second Treatise of Government: I-VI
- Born in 1632-1704
- Writes to argue for this revolution to create a regime of separated powers.
- Who was he trying to convince you not to listen to? He was arguing against
- The values in Locke of democracy, liberalism etc. are not accepted by
everyone in the world, and thus the debate continues. Societies like China are
not organized around Locke’s liberal terms.
- Locke reminds us that the debate is still occurring and is about whether
Locke got it right or not
- Everything in our society is accepting of Locke’s views. So we are looking
outside of this
- Filmer was an advocate of the divine right of Kings
- Locke is arguing for a society based on limited power and divisions of power
whereas Filmer wants a patriarchal society
- The debate between Locke and Filmer can be described as: Locke see society
made up of rational independent individuals, whereas Filmer see society
made up of people who are tied together through bonds of obligation
through tradition and love. People in the patriarchal society must be bound
by obligations to family, religious groups, tribes, and love.
- Is it not irrational to base relationships on such things like owing something
and love and shouldn’t maternity lead us away from these things?
- One side neglects the emotion obligations based on love, and the modern
liberal side focuses on reason alone.
- Characteristics of a traditional society: everyone has a status that is usually
inherited; this status will determine your role in the society and in the
economy – gender roles. Social ties develop and are reinforced by affective
bounds and comes from the family. The individual is embedded into the
community and cannot escape. The past is real and very powerful.
- Status in a modern society is supposed to be earned based on the actions that
you perform. The individual is not embedded, the past is less powerful than
the future, and the dynamic of change is where power is.
- The economic systems that correspond to traditional societies and modern
societies differ. In traditional there are lower class people who do the hard
labour to keep the society going whereas in the modern the people are
always thinking of new ways to grow the economy. The modern society fits
with the flexibility and he impersonal nature of the capitalistic economy. The
link between social relations and economic relations
- Locke does not deny that there can be affective relationships in our lives
- Concepts in reading: state of nature – not such a terrible thing, why do we
need to get out of it and establish a government? Locke sees people as equal,
reasons is the rule between man and man, reason can dictate to man as
conscience does, can reason be as powerful as your conscience? Locke
believes we have this sense of reason and it can override the patches in