Class 12. Marx.docx

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Marx & Marxism
French Revolution & industrial revolution
Born 1818 in Germany; died in England in 1883
Communist Views:
The worker will be poor under the Communist and the worker will always
become poorer is Marx’s idea
The capitalist might become richer but the average person will become
Agriculture to Industrial
Salaries were uncommon (20% had a salary) in the late 18th century to
the majority of people having a salary in the middle of the 19th century
Working for someone who has money, a factory, tools, the equipment
needed for production
2000hr/yr. > 4000hr/yr. > 2000hr/yr.
Before industrialization (1700’s), apprentices began – 12-15 year olds
cotton picking etc., working for 1/6 the wage of an adult
Communist Manifesto
Written in 1848 crucial year in European history because it was the year
revolutions break out
Marxist thinking:
o Substructure: the actual way we build things, the economic reality
(guts of society). Based on the means and mode of production, the
way we organize our tools
o Superstructure: the political expression of the social relations that are
required by the substructure.
Believes there is a certain way history works: in ever stage of history you
have 2 groups:
o One owns the means of production
o The other group does not
Whatever the means of production are (tools) will be organized in some way
which will be the mode of production and there will be a political
organization around that
Marx sees 5 stages of history with 2 categories (exploitative-stage 2,3,4/non
exploitative-stage 1, 5):
o 1. Primitive Communism (non exploitative): the idea that in the
beginning everything was given to mankind, everybody owns
everything and there is no resource competition
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