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Philosophical Origins of Society.docx

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Social Sciences
Julie Perreault

Modernity - The Great Transformation • Discourse on knowledge and Western society: o Human reason o Letters and Science o Progss o Civilization o Liberty • Institutions, systems and events: o Capitalism o Mass production (technique) o Urbanization o Western domination o Secularization of knowledge (science) The Ancients and the Moderns - A Contrast Between Two Worlds? Renaissance: The "Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns" in the Arts and Letters • Imitation or Innovation? • Authority and Progress o In Philosophy and Sciences:  Human being: cosmology vs. anthropology  Knowledge and truth: fixity vs. movement and becoming  Language: reflection of reality vs. reflection of human consciousness and social interactions The Birth of Philosophy in Antiquity • Divisions amongst the Ancient Greek "intellectuals": o POETS-RELIGIONS-SOPHISTS-PHILOSOPHERS o Protogoras: "man is the measure of all things" o Plato: "…the art of contradiction (…) image making, distinguished as portion, not divine but human, of production, that presents, a shadown play of words - such are the blood and the lineage which can, with perfect truth, be assigned to the authentic Sophist" • Philosophy appears in opposition to Sophistic o "What is the true love of wisdom"? o Knowledge: Appearance and Opinions (doxa) vs. Truth and Reason o Discursive methods: Skepticism and Rhetoric vs. Rational Discourse and Dialectic From Socrates to Plato 1. Socrates' paradoxical wisdom: the awareness of his own ignorance "for I know one thing, and that is that I know nothing"
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