Theories & Paradigms in Research Methodology
Theories Reflected in Steps in the Scientific Method
**Much more detail next lecture but here is a quick overview **
• 1. Identify the problem. [lit. review & causal model]
• 2. Hypothesize the cause of the problem. [H1 & H0]
• 3. Provide clear definitions of the concepts [variables].
• 4. Operationalize the concepts [indicators].
• 5. Gather empirical data.
• 6. Test the hypothesis or hypotheses.
• 7. Reflect back on theory.
• 8. Publicize the results.
• 9. Replicate the results.
Qualitative Research Methods
• Case Study
• Content Analysis
Quantitative Research Methods
• Experimental Research,
• Survey Research
• Know how Theories influence Research (Don’t need to know the details of
• Learn how the person & field can influence Theory
• Know how Theories can influence every step of research - from the choice of
research method to where to publish the findings.
Classical Paradigms Their Influence in Choice of Research Methods
• Underlying different theories are paradigms, which are fundamental models
or frames of reference we use to organize our observations and reasoning.
• Each makes assumptions about the nature of social reality.
• Each paradigm suggest different kin